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Philosophy and Culture
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The Philosophy of the Universal Spirit as a theoretical and methodological basis for cultural knowledge of the uniqueness of Russia

Khvoshchevskaia Irina Valer'evna

ORCID: 0000-0001-5130-5486

PhD in Pharmacy

Associate Professor, Researcher at the Higher Humanities School "Antonovo" of Yaroslav the Wise Novgorod State University

634034, Russia, Novgorod region, Veliky Novgorod, Ozernaya str., 14

rosfarm@yandex.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0757.2024.4.70443

EDN:

WZELEF

Received:

11-04-2024


Published:

18-04-2024


Abstract: The article presents an analysis of such categories as "unconscious", "universal spirit", "spiritual and national identity", "collectivism". The concepts of the essence of the spirit developed by G. V. F. Hegel are considered. The conclusion is made about the relationship between the Hegelian category of the universal spirit and spiritual and national identity. The problem of the Russian idea is considered, the main directions of its resolution are outlined. The evolution of ideas about the spiritual and national identity of Russians is described. It is noted that the conclusions about the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians are of great practical importance. The author notes that the conclusions about the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians are of great practical importance. The research can be used to develop strategies for the preservation and development of the cultural heritage of peoples, as well as for a deeper understanding of the processes of formation and development of national identity.The author used methods of philosophical analysis and interpretation of philosophical texts, a historical method to study the evolution of ideas about the spiritual and national identity of Russians, a comparative analysis of various approaches to the problem of the Russian idea, a study of the socio-cultural context of the formation of spiritual and national identity. The author also used analytical and synthetic methods to identify relationships. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the fact that it is an attempt to integrate G. V. F. Hegel's philosophical concepts of the universal spirit with the problems of spiritual and national identity. In addition, the study offers a new approach to understanding the formation of spiritual and national identity, based on Hegelian philosophy. This approach allows us to consider national identity not only as a subjective sense of belonging to a particular nation, but also as a manifestation of the universal spirit, which is embodied through collective values, ideals and cultural traditions. Thus, this study contributes to the development of the philosophy of national identity, offering a new interpretation of its nature and connections with the universal spirit. The results obtained can be used for a deeper understanding of the processes of formation and development of national identity, as well as for the development of strategies for the preservation and development of the cultural heritage of peoples.


Keywords:

universal spirit, spiritual and national identity, mentality, collective unconscious, culture, philosophy, religion, identity, worldview, state

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Introduction. The philosophy of the Universal Spirit, presented by G. V. F.It acts as a conceptual framework on which the understanding and interpretation of cultural phenomena, including Russian culture and spiritual and national identity, is based. Russian culture has historical, religious, mental and cultural features fixed both in the collective unconscious and in the consciousness of citizens. In the context of philosophical cognition, the concept of the philosophy of the universal spirit in the analysis of the uniqueness of the spiritual and national consciousness of Russians seems to us very relevant.

Results and discussion: Thus, in order to reveal the problems of our research, we will focus on the expression Spirit: universal special singular".

Theories and concepts devoted to the concept of "spirit" occupy a special place in the general body of philosophical knowledge. The spirit is one of the key concepts of the Christian religion, but for the first time from a scientific point of view, this concept began to be comprehended by the philosophers of the socalled classical period - I. Kant, I. G. Fichte, F. W. J. Schelling, G. V. F.Hegel et al. [12, p. 48] According to G. V. F.According to Hegel, spirit outwardly opposes nature matter with its objective properties, a temporary substance that eventually "disintegrates into specific points, into material atoms from which it is composed" [7, p. 16].

Reflections on the spirit and soul led philosophers to analyze the concept of the unconscious. Initially, the unconscious was interpreted as unconscious personal forms of being the uncontrolled activity of individual consciousness, and subsequently understood as something inherent in the whole collective. In addition, the unconscious can be considered as a special way of cognition, which differs from the usual "consistent rational awareness of facts and processes" [2, p. 21].

The spirit, according to G. V. F. Hegel, manifests itself at three levels of human existence "universal special singular". The spirit allows a person to become aware of his being in the world around him, to recognize his unique characteristics that distinguish him from his kind and, most importantly, to become part of the "universal" collective consciousness. At the same time, the universal is in every person, it is an integral part of his spirit. As G. V. F. points out.Hegel, "universality is the existence of the spirit. As a self-existent, the universal turns out to be self-isolating and, in this sense, identity with itself" [8, p. 27].

The relationship between the concept of the universal spirit and spiritual and national identity

Conclusions about the dichotomous unity between the collective and the personal led G. V. F.Hegel's approach to the analysis of the "spirit of history" the historical consciousness of a nationality, nation, and civil society. S. L. Montesquieu also linked the concept of the spirit with the historical past of society: In his opinion, in the process of cognition of man and society, one should rely, among other things, on historical content [11]; [5, p. 122].

All of the above leads us to the idea of the relationship between the Hegelian category of the universal spirit and the spiritual-national identity. At the personal level, spiritual and national self-awareness manifests itself in national selfidentification - a set of ideal reference ideas and attitudes about one's own cultural and national identity, with which a person correlates his behavior and position in society [10, p. 534]. The people, according to G. V. F.According to Hegel, he has a special spirit and the self-consciousness of each person is inextricably linked with the spirit of the whole people. The unconscious, in turn, can be interpreted as the unconscious existence of a person in ethnic reality. K. G. Jung pointed out that a person exists in his ethnic group unconsciously, semi-consciously and consciously at the same time [13, p. 171].

The spirit of a national or ethnic community can be represented in the form of unconscious, semi-conscious and conscious axiological components that manifest themselves in human language and activity. On the one hand, national identity has a number of universal features inherent in any society, but on the other hand, it is designed to express the unique, specific features of a certain community of people. The universal spirit affects people's lives not directly, but indirectly, through people's perceived ideas and norms. The universal spirit expresses the solidarity nature of society and can explain the presence of many irrational factors in social behavior.

At the same time, the consciousness of the nation acts not only as a synthesis of the feelings and thoughts of the living representatives of this nation, but also as a synthesis of the spirit of all ancestors who contributed to the formation of a certain national identity.

The "collective unconscious" or "universal spirit" stems from pre-social forms of experience, "vital ancestral experiences" [9, p. 139]. The ethnic experience of past generations goes to the "bottom" of the human psyche, forming a fundamental and unconscious formation, which, in addition, provides common guidelines for subsequent generations. Thus, one can see a direct relationship between the categories "unconscious", "universal spirit", "national identity", as well as with concepts such as "mentality", "mentality" and "national character".

The Universal Spirit in the context of the analysis of the spiritual and national identity of Russians

Recently, discussions on the spiritual identity of Russians have been increasingly found in socio-political and scientific discourse. In the current conditions, as globalization, Westernization, and digitalization increase, the national identity of Russian citizens is increasingly being subjected to destructive influences. It is not always clear whether modern Russians have a "universal spirit", or whether society is gradually and irreversibly coming to atomization.

In a situation of economic, political, social and spiritual crisis, it is especially relevant to address the problem of the Russian idea, to its philosophical study taking into account new realities. Despite the existing contradictions, all theoretical researchers, politicians and public figures agree that the preservation and strengthening of an integral national identity will revive and preserve a stable and strong Russia [6, p. 107].

The concept of the universal spirit as applied in Russia refers us to the concept of cultural dimensions by G. Hofstede, in which each of the cultures is located on a certain section of a particular scale of cultural measurement. Thus, in the assessments on the scale of "individualism collectivism", Russian culture has always tended towards collectivism. Russian culture both in the past and at the present stage, is identified with collectivism, with the predominance of group interests over individual ones, in the high importance of social ties and in the significant role of public institutions. Russian collectivism can also be interpreted from the perspective of the Hegelian spirit and the doctrine of the unconscious (including collective), because the collectivism of Russians is rooted in the cultural traditions of past eras, fixed in descriptions of historical events, formalized in the specifics of the activities and powers of social institutions.

In Russian culture, the collective unconscious manifests itself through common cultural motifs, symbols and images that form collective self-awareness and influence the mentality and behavior of individuals. In Russian culture, collectivism or universality of the spirit is manifested in a collective sense of belonging to history and tradition, in group empathy for the fate of Russia, in solidarity, in common religious, historical and cultural beliefs.

The evolution of ideas about the universality of the spirit of Russians

It should be noted that the question of the universality of the spirit of Russians has been raised for quite a long time. Attempts to identify the essential features of the national identity and the collective unconscious of the Russian people have been made throughout the entire national history of philosophy.

The original form of national identity was the intuitive, almost unconscious mythology of the pagans; later, in the Middle Ages, the ideology of Orthodox Christian Messianism and theocracy began to occupy a dominant position. Christian teachings have become the ideological basis of historiosophical teachings (in this regard, one can note the teachings of Metropolitan Hilarion, the historiosophical-theocratic providentialism of the chronicler Nestor, the conciliar ideal of "Holy Russia" by Sergius of Radonezh and Nil Sorsky, the philosophy of autocracy by I. Volotsky) [6, p. 108].

Subsequently, in the Modern era, the Christian paradigm was supplemented (but not rejected) by the scientific and philosophical research of contemporaries. Traditionally, the first historians and philosophers who addressed the issues of national consciousness and the "Russian spirit" are considered to be P. Ya. Chaadaev, I. V. Kireevsky, A. S. Khomyakov, K. S. Aksakov. According to modern experts, it was these thinkers who formed the scientific branch that is now commonly referred to as Russian studies. The universality of the spirit of the Russian people in the works of the above-mentioned and many other authors has acquired a complete philosophical and historical meaning, taking the historiosophical form of the "Russian idea".

Reflections on the universality of the spirit of Russians have been going on for a long time in the context of Slavophilism. The Russian idea among the Slavophiles was based on the formation of an integral and original Orthodox culture, which entered into synthesis with the folk traditions of previous generations [6, p. 110]. At the present stage, we are witnessing the revival of these ideas: in media and scientific discourse, it is increasingly possible to hear that "the true future of Russia may be associated with the inherently theocratic restoration of Orthodox dogmatics as the foundation of a new Russian state ideology" [1, p. 180].

To date, philosophical and historical concepts about the Russian idea and the collective consciousness of Russians have been consolidated within a separate scientific branch - Russian studies. Russian studies is an integral philosophical science about Russia, compiling the experience of Russian philosophy and a set of philosophical and historical teachings about the spiritual essence of Russia.

The universality of the spirit of the Russian people implies the unity of the attitudes of the majority of representatives of the cultural and social community of people. In many ways, these attitudes stem from the basis of comparing Russia and other cultures.

At the same time, the comparison often turns into confrontation for example, today media reports focus on the confrontation between the civilizations of the East and the civilizations of the West. Critics of this position point to a priori destructive vector: the spiritual and national identity formed on the basis of opposition to "outsiders" is less stable than that which is formed on the basis of internal cultural and mental constants. The unity of the nation should be "free and conscious, based on cultural creation and personal spiritual improvement," and the key impulse for such creative unity is "good, clear and aspiring thought" [10, p. 549]. In an ideal situation, nations should not confront each other, but strive for cooperation. In the works of modern philosophers, one can find the opinion that "the earthly civilization should appear as a single "collective Self" worthy of joining the cosmic community and continuing its evolution in other cosmic worlds and aboveground limits" [10, p. 549].

Conclusions and concepts about the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians are of great practical importance. Sociologists are drawn to the above-mentioned concepts of the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians in order to study the dynamics of the development of society, its value orientations and ideological attitudes. Knowledge of these aspects makes it possible to develop more effective social programs and policies that take into account national and cultural characteristics. In cultural studies, history and anthropology, the analysis of conclusions about the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians helps to understand the unique cultural characteristics of the people, the relationship of mentality and the historical path of the nation. In psychology, the study of the concept of the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians can shed light on issues of individual and collective identity, mental health and psychological well-being of representatives of the nation. In the fields of political science and international relations, consideration of various aspects of the spiritual and national identity of Russians makes it possible to understand the peculiarities of the political culture of the nation, its influence on domestic and foreign policy.

Increasingly, one can hear the opinion that the practical embodiment of the Hegelian universality of the spirit is the national idea of the modern Russian state. This idea should be carefully studied, logically verified and clearly stated in such a way In this case, it will be able to function not only in the scientific and theoretical space, but also become a prerequisite for the reform of national education. According to experts, reforms aimed at modernizing education require updating the specific content of the cultural and historical identity of Russia and creating the necessary systemic and methodological foundations for strengthening the spiritual and national identity of Russians [4, p. 88].

Conclusion. Thus, the conducted research allows us to come to the following conclusions:

1. Philosophers throughout history have been interested in the concepts of spirit, consciousness and the unconscious. Initially, the unconscious was interpreted as unconscious personal forms of being the uncontrolled activity of individual consciousness, and subsequently understood as something inherent in the whole collective. According to G. V. F. Hegel, the spirit manifests itself on three levels of human existence "universal special singular". The universal is in every person, it is an integral part of his spirit.

2. The dichotomous unity of the collective and the personal is closely related to the concept of the "spirit of history" the historical consciousness of a nationality, nation, and civil society. Thus, it can be concluded that the category of universal spirit correlates with the concept of "spiritual and national identity". National identity expresses the unique, specific features of a certain community of people.

3. In a situation of economic, political, social and spiritual crisis, it is especially relevant to address the problem of the Russian idea, to its philosophical study. Russian culture both in the past and at the present stage, is identified with collectivism, with the predominance of group interests over individual ones.

4. Initially, the idea of the universality of the spirit of Russians developed in the context of Christian teachings. Subsequently, the Christian paradigm was supplemented with scientific and philosophical concepts and teachings. Reflections on the universality of the spirit of Russians have been going on for a long time in the context of Slavophilism. To date, philosophical and historical concepts about the Russian idea and the collective consciousness of Russians have been consolidated within a separate scientific branch - Russian studies.

5. The universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians are of great applied importance in the context of studying the dynamics of society, its value orientations and ideological attitudes, as well as in shaping the directions of reforming the education system.

6.

References
1. Bobrova, L. A. (2007). The Idea of Russia in Russian Philosophy of History. Social and Human Sciences. Domestic and Foreign Literature. Philosophy, 3, 179-183.
2. Boyko, P. E., & Belan E.A. (2020). Universal, Particular, and Individual of the Unconscious in the Philosophy of Subjective Spirit by G. W. F. Hegel. Bulletin of RSHA, 4, 20-27.
3. Boyko, P. E. (2006). The Idea of Russia in Russian Philosophy of History. Moscow. Russia: Social-Political Thought.
4. Boyko P.E., & Galustyan G.L. (2023). On the Philosophical-Historical Content of the Course "Fundamentals of Russian Statehood". Bulletin of ChelSU, 4(474), 85-90.
5. Gainutdinov, R. I., Gainutdinov R.I., & Maslennikov D.M. (2019). The Idea of the Spirit of History in the Interpretation of Montesquieu and Hegel. Bulletin of RSHA, 4, 112-123.
6. Galustyan, G. L. (2020). Philosophical Russology as the Foundation of Spiritual Identity and National Self-Consciousness of Modern Russia. Bulletin of RSHA, 2, 106-119.
7Hegel. Philosophy of Nature. (1934). Moscow, Russia: Soczekgiz.
8. Hegel, G.W.F. (1977). Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences. Moscow, Russia: Mysl.
9. Efimov, Yu.I. (2009). Problems of Evolution of Ethnic Consciousness in Philosophy and Science. Bulletin of ChSU, 4, 128-133.
10. Ivanov, A.V. (2007). Consciousness of Russia: Earthly Roots and Cosmic Perspectives. Proceedings of the United Scientific Center for Problems of Cosmic Thinking, 1, 534-550.
11. Montesquieu, C. (1955). Selected Works. Moscow, Russia: Gospolitizdat.
12. Cherezov, A.E. (2022). The Nature of Spirit in Hegel's Philosophy. Bulletin of MGPU, 1, 47-56.
13. Jung, C.G. (2019). Psychological Types. Moscow, Russia: Akademicheskiy Proyekt. 

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In the journal Philosophy and Culture, the author presented his article "Philosophy of the Universal Spirit as a theoretical and methodological basis for cultural knowledge of the uniqueness of Russia", in which a study was conducted on the possibility of applying the provisions of G.V.F. Hegel as a philosophical justification of the cultural identity of our people. The author proceeds in studying this issue from the fact that the universality of the spirit of the Russian people implies the unity of attitudes of the majority of representatives of the cultural and social community of people. In Russian culture, the collective unconscious manifests itself through common cultural motifs, symbols and images that form collective self-awareness and influence the mentality and behavior of individuals. Russian collectivism or universality of the spirit is manifested in a collective sense of belonging to history and tradition, in group empathy for the fate of Russia, in solidarity, in common religious, historical and cultural beliefs. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to analyze the uniqueness of the spiritual and national consciousness of Russians in the context of philosophical cognition of the concept of universal spirit. The methodological basis is an integrated approach that includes both general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as philosophical analysis. The theoretical justification for the author was the works of such classical and modern researchers as G.F.G. Hegel, K.G. Jung, G. L. Galustyants, L. A. Bobrova, P.E. Boyko, etc. As a result of studying the sources and systematization of the research interests of Russian scientists on the topic chosen by the author, the author comes to the conclusion that theories and concepts devoted to the concept of "spirit" occupy a special place in the general body of philosophical knowledge. The spirit is one of the key concepts of the Christian religion, but for the first time from a scientific point of view, this concept began to be comprehended by the philosophers of the classical period I. Kant, I.G. Fichte, F.W.J. Schelling, G.V.F. Hegel, etc. The study of the potential of applying the philosophical views of G.F.G. Hegel as a scientific justification for the formation of a unique cultural identity of the Russian nation is the scientific novelty of the study. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of applying its results in the context of studying the dynamics of society's development, its value orientations and ideological attitudes, as well as in shaping the directions of reforming the education system. In the study, the author takes as a basis the position of Hegel "Spirit: universal special singular" to reveal the problems, the interpretation of which leads the author to the conclusion about the relationship between the Hegelian category of universal spirit and spiritual-national identity. At the personal level, spiritual and national self-awareness manifests itself in national selfidentification - a set of ideal reference ideas and attitudes about one's own cultural and national identity, with which a person correlates his behavior and position in society. The unconscious, based on the provisions of C.G. Jung, is interpreted by the author as the unconscious existence of a person in ethnic reality. The spirit of national or ethnic community is presented by the author in the form of unconscious, semi-conscious and conscious axiological components that manifest themselves in human language and activity. On the one hand, national identity has a number of universal features inherent in any society, but on the other hand, it is designed to express the unique, specific features of a certain community of people. The universal spirit expresses the solidarity nature of society and can explain the presence of many irrational factors in social behavior. At the same time, the consciousness of the nation, from the author's point of view, acts not only as a synthesis of the feelings and thoughts of the living representatives of this nation, but also as a synthesis of the spirit of all ancestors who contributed to the formation of a certain national identity. The author pays special attention to the disclosure of the interdisciplinary applied significance of the concept of the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians. Thus, in sociology, knowledge of these aspects makes it possible to develop more effective social programs and policies that take into account national and cultural characteristics. In cultural studies, history and anthropology, the analysis of conclusions about the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians helps to understand the unique cultural characteristics of the people, the relationship of mentality and the historical path of the nation. In psychology, the study of the concept of the universality of the spirit and its relationship with the spiritual and national identity of Russians can shed light on issues of individual and collective identity, mental health and psychological well-being of representatives of the nation. In the fields of political science and international relations, consideration of various aspects of the spiritual and national identity of Russians makes it possible to understand the peculiarities of the political culture of the nation, its influence on domestic and foreign policy. In conclusion, the author presents a conclusion on the conducted research, which contains all the key provisions of the presented material. It seems that the author in his material touched upon relevant and interesting issues for modern socio-humanitarian knowledge, choosing a topic for analysis, consideration of which in scientific research discourse will entail certain changes in the established approaches and directions of analysis of the problem addressed in the presented article. The results obtained allow us to assert that the search for a philosophical justification for the formation of national identity is of undoubted theoretical and practical cultural interest and can serve as a source of further research. The material presented in the work has a fairly clear, logically structured structure that contributes to the full assimilation of the material. An adequate choice of methodological base also contributes to this. The bibliographic list of the study consists of 13 sources, which is sufficient for the generalization and analysis of scientific discourse on the subject under study. The author fulfilled his goal, obtained certain results that made it possible to summarize the material. It should be noted that the article may be of interest to readers and deserves to be published in a reputable scientific publication. However, the text of the article needs to be corrected, as it contains spelling errors and typos.