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Pedagogy and education
Reference:

Methods of individual educational work of curators at universities of the Ministry of the Interior in Russia

Tufleikina Natalya Aleksandrovna

Senior editor of the Editorial and publishing department of the Ryazan branch of Moscow university of Ministry of Interior of Russia named after Kikot

390010, Russia, Ryazan region, Ryazan, Chkalova str., 7, building 1, sq. 76

lekgr@rfmumvd.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0676.2024.2.70431

EDN:

XOALZH

Received:

10-04-2024


Published:

17-04-2024


Abstract: The subject of the article is the methods of individual educational work of curators in universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The relevance of the study is due to the insufficient development of the system of methods for individual educational work of curators, methodological recommendations for their use in educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, as well as the predominant orientation of many curators to the use of forms and methods of educational work carried out with groups and teams. The effective work curators involves the integrated use of the entire arsenal of methods and means of educational work. The purpose of the study is a detailed description of the methods of individual educational work of curators in universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The author lists and reveals the principles of organizing and conducting educational influence on the of cadets person in the system of individual educational work of curators, requirements for their use of methods of individual educational work. The article provides detailed methodological recommendations for the use of such methods of individual educational work as persuasion, example, competition, exercise, acceptance, criticism of actions and deeds by teachers at universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Rus-sia, individual tasks and assignments, providing comradely assistance, rendering knowledge of trust, coercion. It is noted that the choice of methods of educational influence depends on the experience of the subjects of education (including the curators and the cadet), goals, objectives, content and conditions of individual educational work, personal and professional characteristics of the cadet. The curator must make the optimal choice of method (or methods) of educational influence.


Keywords:

individual educational work, curator of academic groups, method of education, educational impact, persuasion, example, competition, exercise, acceptance, criticism of actions

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction

High-quality education is the basis of the competence of a law enforcement officer. In modern conditions, more than ever, the internal affairs bodies need educated, highly moral young people who are able to adequately fulfill their professional duties. The educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia are aimed at training and educating new generations of cadets and trainees, professionals with solid moral principles. The development of the Institute of curatorship contributes to the creation of all conditions for obtaining high-quality education.

The teacher-curator, as an important subject of the educational process in his activity, is focused on providing assistance and support to the wards during the entire period of their education. The concept of "curator", translated from Latin "curator" trustee, determines the general direction of activity, which consists in pedagogical support of students, education and development of their personality both during the adaptation of first-year students and during the period of professionalization in the future. Teachers-curators of universities are one of the key links in the system of educational work carried out both individually and in a group (collective) form.

A brief overview of the research

A brief analysis of foreign studies allows us to conclude that there is insufficient orientation of teachers-curators (tutors) to educational work. Thus, in Latin American universities, "... the professional work of curatorial teachers mainly consists of teaching. Education is defined as a priority activity, and didactic and pedagogical training of students and their professional development are of secondary importance" [1].

A study of the work of curators of UK universities [2] described psychological work to improve the level of psychological well-being of students and create a favorable psychological climate.The work devoted to the activities of curatorial teachers at US universities [3] analyzes the educational work with students carried out in a group, describes the strategies of the curator's work with a group of students in a lecture format, appropriate methods (including the reflexive method, the method of support, the method of encouragement).

In the system of activities of "personal tutors" (personal tutors), who provide individual support and support to a student in the UK, there is an incorrect definition by both the curators themselves and the students of the roles and functions of the curators. "The fact that the role of a personal mentor is usually not clearly delineated makes it difficult to determine where the role of a teacher ends and the role of a personal mentor begins."[4]

Insufficient training of teachers-curators of British universities for the selection of methods of individual educational impact is noted. There is a problem with the choice of reward and punishment methods: "Personal curators may face a contradictory set of roles and expectations within the role itself; they act as "gatekeepers" (do not allow misconduct) and as "patrons" (encourage, show warmth and demonstrate partnership). It is difficult for a curator without clear instructions to understand which "hat" to wear when meeting with students" [5].

A study of curatorial activities at Portuguese universities revealed an underestimation of the role of curators, who are designed to encourage interest in classes and improve the psychological well-being of students [6].

In the scientific and pedagogical literature devoted to the organization and conduct of educational work in universities of the Russian Federation, the functionality [7], principles and conditions [8], the main tasks [9] of the educational work of teachers-curators with a training platoon (group) are considered in detail. Such areas of activity of teachers-curators as socio-psychological and didactic adaptation of students [10], professional education and increased motivation for learning [11] have been studied in detail. The pedagogical aspects of the organization and planning of the work of teachers-curators have been studied [12]. Meanwhile, we can state the lack of research on the forms and methods of individual educational work of teachers-curators in the universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and universities of other "law enforcement" departments.

We can identify only a small range of such scientific works. Thus, the article by N.M. Savitsky emphasizes the importance of an individual approach in the educational work of the curator of the training platoon at the university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. When conducting individual educational work, he recommends that the curators of the training platoons "use individual conversations, individual assignments and assignments; personal assistance in solving everyday problems; individual control; listening to reports and messages from cadets; working with parents and relatives of the cadet; using means of disciplinary and moral influence; personal example of the educator" [13, p. 57]. The theoretical works of teachers describe educational activities conducted with cadets, mainly in a group form. The article by A.A. Feoktistova [14] reveals such forms of collective work of a teacher-curator with students as training, in the article by E.V. Rubtsova [15] roleplaying, excursions, hikes, conferences, in the article by I.N. Sokolovskaya [16] - press conference, briefing, round table, video conference, webinar, discussion, debate, interview, debate, business game, role-playing game. Among the 10 forms of educational work in the activities of teachers-curators of the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, described in a scientific article [17, p. 64], 2-3 can be attributed to individual, the rest to collective (group) forms.

A similar approach is noted among curators and practitioners, especially beginners. In the work of R.G. Sverdev, it is emphasized that his "study of problematic issues in the activities of curators shows that at first education is associated with extracurricular work for young teachers, the duties of a curator of study groups. They often do not realize that every educational action towards cadets is reflected in their personality" [18, pp. 132-133].

In the work of the teachers-curators of the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, only certain aspects of the application of methods of individual educational work are considered. Thus, the article by E.V. Filipenko and G.A. Vitolnik [19] briefly describes recommendations for the use by teachers-curators of the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia of such methods of education as persuasion, exercise, encouragement, criticism of the actions (deeds) of cadets. In the work of EvtikhovaN.The article also briefly lists such individual forms of educational work of teachers-curators of the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia as studying the interests of cadets and students, their family conditions and extracurricular communication, assistance in overcoming educational difficulties, problems in academic work [20, p. 105].

Individual work with cadets is referred by some authors to the "main parameters of the work of teachers-curators" [21, p. 319], however, the pedagogy does not describe in detail the system of methods of individual educational work of teachers-curators of the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, there are no methodological recommendations for their application.

Curatorial activities should be strictly regulated and have a solid scientific and pedagogical basis. At the same time, there is a practice in the Russian Federation in which the university independently determines the goals, functions, powers, as well as the forms and methods of work of the teacher-curator. In the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation dated December 25, 2020 No. 900 "Issues of the organization of moral and psychological support for the activities of the internal Affairs bodies of the Russian Federation" it is indicated that in educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, along with the heads and departments for work with personnel, educational work is also carried out by the teaching staff, however, in the regulatory legal framework The acts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia do not reflect the specifics of the organization and conduct of educational work in departmental educational organizations, and the requirements for the work of teachers-curators are not described.

It can also be noted that due to the significant workload in educational, scientific and methodological work and the lack of material incentives to fulfill the social burden in the form of the functions of teachers-curators, in practice, the forms and methods of educational work carried out with groups and collectives prevail in the work of curators. Meanwhile, at the university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, "the teacher-curator should use in his activities the entire prescribed set of methods and forms of education, as well as conduct educational work with students in all directions, since only in this case the curator's activity will be productive" [22, p. 99]. Teachers-curators of training platoons "... in their activities, in order to increase its effectiveness and get the expected result of influencing the consciousness of cadets and listeners, they should use the entire prescribed set of methods and forms of education ..." [23, pp. 30-31].

The organization of educational influence on the personality of cadets in the system of individual educational work of teachers-curators at universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia involves the use of verbal, i.e. speech influence (explanations, argumentation, evidence, comparison, etc.); non-verbal, i.e. non-verbal influence (showing, example, joint activity), methods of influence (persuasion, encouragement examples, exercises, etc.); forms of influence (conversations, assignments, inducements to accept and fulfill obligations, individual conversations, etc.).

We conducted an intelligence study in the form of an express questionnaire of 18 teachers-curators at the Ryazan branch of the Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal AffairsRussia named after V.Ya. Kikot. Considering that the average indicator of the teaching experience of employees of an educational organization is 11 years (the specifics of a departmental educational organization is that they include both freelance teaching staff, as a rule, with experience in teaching at other universities, and employees transferred to the service from practical units of territorial internal affairs bodies), teachers-the curators were divided into 2 groups: curators with more than 5 years of curatorial experience (7 people), and curators with less than 5 years of curatorial experience (11 people).

The curator teachers were asked questions: "What forms of educational work do you prefer to use in curatorial activities?", "What are the main methods of educational work do you prefer to use in curatorial activities?". Based on the respondents' answers to the first question (Fig. 1), it can be concluded that the most popular forms of work for both categories of teachers-curators are cultural, educational and entertainment events: excursions (to the university, to the sights), visits to the theater, cinema, exhibitions, etc. At the same time, teachers with less than 5 years of curatorial experience prefer to use game forms of work more often (business game, role-playing game, quiz). Conversations are also popular forms of work for both categories, however, it is noteworthy that novice curators rarely choose such a form of work as individual conversations with students.

Fig.1 Selection of answers to the question "What are the main forms of educational work that you prefer to use in curatorial activities? (any number of responses), in %

The answers of the teachers-curators to the second question (Fig.2) show that experienced curators more often than beginners prefer to use the method of competition, exercise, encouragement and punishment, individual assignments, trust, coercion. In general, teachers-curators with more than 5 years of experience in curatorial activities, compared with young colleagues, dismantle a greater number and variety of methods of educational influence.

Fig.2 The choice of answers to the question "What are the main methods of educational work that you prefer to use in curatorial activities? (any number of responses), in %

Due to the small number of respondents and the pilot nature of the study, we cannot extend the conclusions to the general body of teachers-curators in the higher education system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, however, they correspond to the provisions formulated as a result of a theoretical analysis of sources, and this allows us to emphasize the relevance of the research problem.

Thus, teachers-curators are not sufficiently focused on the application of individual forms and methods of educational work.

All of the above has determined the relevance of the topic of the article, the purpose of which is to describe the methods of educational influence on personality in the system of individual educational work of teachers-curators in universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

Results and their discussion

Based on the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature and the analysis of the experience of organizing the activities of teachers-curators in the Ryazan branch of the Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal AffairsKikot Russia (the author conducted an expert survey of 18 teachers and curators) we can argue that the most effective should be considered the integrated use of various methods of educational influence on the individual, depending on specific conditions. At the same time, the use of specific methods of educational work in relation to cadets of universities of the Ministry of Internal AffairsRussia should be built in accordance with the following recommendations.

In accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation dated December 25, 2020 No. 900 "Issues of organizing moral and psychological support for the activities of internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation" in educational work, including the educational work of teachers of educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal AffairsIn Russia, in the practice of educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal AffairsThe following methods of education are used in Russia: persuasion, example, competition, exercise, encouragement, criticism of actions (deeds). At the same time, in the universities of the Ministry of Internal AffairsIn Russia, other methods of education are also used in the educational work system, such as inclusion in various types of activities, individual tasks and assignments, trust, providing companionship, the method of coercion, punishment, off-duty communication.

Persuasion is the main method of individual educational work, which involves influencing the personality of a cadet, his feelings, will and behavior in order to form and subsequently consolidate positive moral qualities of a person and eliminate (minimize) negative character traits. It should be borne in mind that the method of persuasion is based on the principle of voluntariness, it cannot be replaced by the method of coercion, i.e. the pupil in respect of whom this method is used must consciously and independently make the necessary decision.

Persuasion should be applied only when the teacher-curator is confident in the validity of what he convinces the cadet of. Only those who are firmly convinced of what they are talking about can successfully convince others.

The effectiveness of persuasion increases if the curator has authority and shows by his example compliance with what he is trying to prove the need for.

It should always be remembered that the basis of persuasion is correct reasoning. It is recommended to start the argumentation with the statement of the thesis, i.e. a clear statement of your position, i.e. what you need to convince the pupil of. Arguments must include accurate facts, be well-founded and reliable, and have a logical sequence. Before talking to a cadet, it is recommended to prepare 3-5 strong arguments. In adverse circumstances (fundamental objections and rejection of the curator's point of view are expected, the curator does not yet have proper authority in the eyes of the cadet, etc.), it is better to start persuasion with the strongest arguments. Under more favorable circumstances (for example, the cadet's point of view is close to the point of view of the curator, the cadet understands the fairness of the requirements, the teacher-curator has indisputable authority), the strongest arguments should be left at the end of the conversation.

It is recommended to strengthen the argument with emotional impact, to demonstrate your emotional attitude to the topic of the conversation (for example, to show your annoyance, frustration, surprise at the actions of the cadet).

The success of persuasion is achieved by the ability to use sign language, facial expressions, intonation. The argument should end with a repetition of the thesis and a call for necessary action.

When persuading, it is recommended to refer to the personal experience of the cadet, the experience of other successful cadets, the experience of the curator himself, and give examples. The success of persuasion depends on the tact of the curator, his understanding of the personal characteristics of the students. An individual approach involves taking into account their age and psychological characteristics, level of cultural development and experience.

When convincing, the curator must be truthful, sincere, and honest towards the cadet. It is necessary to seek the pupil's understanding of the essence of the events taking place, their clear assessment, verbalization (clear pronouncing) of their attitude. At the same time, it is necessary to be ready to answer the most pressing and topical questions. You should not be afraid to show the real difficulties of the proposed path, you should comment on the existing contradictions, describe possible solutions to problems, show their advantages and disadvantages, and suggest your own ways to eliminate them.

The manifestation of tact excludes the manifestation of arrogance, edifying tone, rudeness, ridicule, reproaches. It is necessary to show respect for the personality of the person being brought up, attention to his needs, thoughts and feelings, to his point of view and arguments. It is necessary to avoid both arrogance and an edifying tone, as well as familiarity.

The teacher's speech should be clear, intelligible, accessible, and the language should be clear and easy to understand, however, there should be no place for reduced vocabulary (rude words, swearing), jargon (both professional and youth), colloquialisms.

It is recommended to combine persuasion by word and persuasion by deed. Persuasion by deed can be represented by showing the cadet the social value and significance of his actions; assigning him tasks that help overcome doubts; analyzing life phenomena that refute erroneous views; referring to the experience of senior students; personal example of the curator, etc.

An example is an extremely effective individual method of education, giving a sample of activities, actions, and lifestyle. The example method is a purposeful and systematic exposure to positive behaviors designed to serve as a model for imitation. Imitation is most characteristic of the younger generation, and therefore it should be pointed out that the example is particularly effective for first-year students.

The mechanism of action of the example method should not be considered only as blind imitation, copying patterns of behavior. Focusing on the example of other people's behavior begins with copying the behavior of "significant others" (perceived as successful, authoritative), to some extent excluding independence and freedom to find their own solutions, to a high degree of critical assessment, consciousness and creative approach to choosing a role model. Therefore, it is important to keep track of information about who is an authority for students and what actions are role models.

The most effective example is considered to be the personal example of a teacher-curator, which is the psychological basis of his authority and moral right to be an educator. This method is effective if the teacher himself systematically demonstrates the actions and qualities, the education of which he sets the task.

It should also be considered useful to use examples of indirect influence, which include heroic deeds, deeds of outstanding personalities, including historical figures, examples of heroic performance of civil, military or official duty by ordinary people, etc.

It should be emphasized that representatives of the younger generation of law enforcement officers are particularly influenced by examples of the exploits of their peers, for example, examples of the exploits of young police officers during the Great Patriotic War and contemporaries of any age (heroism of law enforcement officers during a special military operation). When using the example method, the teacher-curator needs to emphasize not only his social significance, but also the similarity between him and the example, because in this case there is a personal identification with the personality of the hero, while the power of the example increases.

When providing educational influence, it is important to draw the attention of the cadet to the motivation of the behavior of the person who is being set as an example. The example should be provided with a vivid emotional description, for example, to visually describe the difficulties that the hero of the example overcame. Achieving the pattern in the given example should be realistic. It is important for the educator to clearly describe the way to achieve it. In addition, he must create conditions conducive to achieving the goal, and an environment that does not prevent this.

Education can also take place through observing the behavior of other members of the team, copying their behavior (the cadet himself takes an example from someone). Therefore, it is important that the cadets stay in an atmosphere of intolerance to violations of discipline.

Competition is a method of education based on the spirit of healthy competition in certain types of collective activities. The competition method is based on people's natural need for competition, healthy competition. Competing with others, the cadet tries to surpass the other, as a result of which his professionally significant qualities develop faster, and the performance indicators of the entire educational unit grow. By comparing the achievements of the cadet with the results of his colleagues in an individual conversation, the curator gives an incentive to develop, and the cadet makes more efforts to surpass the opponent.

A positive role can be played by the use of a rating assessment of educational and service activities, namely the annual ranking of the best cadets of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal AffairsOf Russia. It is important to keep in mind that a rating assessment is effective only in cases where its criteria are known in advance, achievable, clear and transparent, and all subjects of the rating assessment have equal opportunities to achieve the necessary results. It is undesirable to change the rating criteria annually.

The exercise is a repeated repetition of positive actions, ways and forms of positive behavior in order to consolidate them in personal experience. The method of exercise in individual educational work is aimed at accumulating personal and professional experience, forming habits of statutory behavior, developing independence and other positive qualities in achieving educational and service goals.

It should be borne in mind that the exercise method is effective with high consciousness and deep conviction of the cadet in the need to act in a certain way. Thus, it is recommended to combine this method with the method of persuasion. The exercise method shows effectiveness only when it is systematically used, assuming the need for repeated reproduction of the same actions. Systematicity, planning, regularity are the most important conditions for the application of the method, therefore, the educator should carefully plan the volume and sequence of loads that affect the achievement of the planned result.

It is recommended to complicate the exercises smoothly, gradually. The cadet's will should not be subjected to too severe tests. Completing tasks should not lead to moral and psychological injuries, break the personality of the pupil. When using the exercise method, the principle of feasible difficulty and reasonable demands should be observed. It should be considered useful to apply the provisions of the concept of the zone of immediate development, developed by L.S. Vygotsky. The maximum complexity of the exercise should be limited to setting tasks for the pupil that are difficult for him to complete on his own, but he is able to do this with some support, help, and advice from the teacher. Setting easier tasks will not contribute to the education of the necessary qualities. Setting more difficult tasks will lead to their non-fulfillment, a situation of failure that also does not contribute to the goals of education.

An important condition for the application of the exercise method is control. When setting tasks to perform certain actions, the teacher-curator must think over and organize the control of their implementation. Practice shows that most cadets will sooner or later give up performing complex exercises without organized control, and only about one in ten will finish the job. Gradually, as the student's independence increases and consciousness grows, the degree of control on the part of the curator can be reduced, while control gives way to self-control of the cadet.

Approval is the stimulation of positive actions of a pupil through appreciation of his actions, the formation of a sense of satisfaction and joy from the recognition of his efforts and efforts. approval reinforces positive skills and habits. Behavioral psychology can give the teacher-curator knowledge of the fact that negative stimulation, for example, in the form of stick discipline in an educational organization, does not develop the consciousness of students. The cadet will fulfill the requirements only if there is strict control and will cease to comply with them when the control is relaxed.

Approval should be expressed for the really high result achieved, and the educator plans that the pupil will not "rest on his laurels" and stop at what has been achieved.

It must also be remembered that approval performs not only an evaluative, but also a stimulating function. Therefore, for example, in some cases it is permissible to mark the first positive results of a cadet's activity or the first positive results of a cadet in a new field of activity (even if they are not high enough yet), stimulating further development of educational and professional skills.

Encouragement should be applied in strict accordance with the pedagogical principle of feasibility and accessibility. Every next time, it is recommended to encourage cadets for completing more complex tasks, gradually increasing the level of requirements.

The educational value of approval is significantly reduced if it is expressed undeservedly or for the performance of elementary and secondary duties. It is not recommended to encourage a cadet to perform standard routine work (even at a good level) if this is part of his direct official duties. It is important to express approval about the cadet's initiative, diligence in academic and extracurricular activities. At the same time, success in social activities and sports should not overshadow mediocre studies. Cadets should be clearly aware of the criteria for evaluating their actions and achievements.

The sooner the reinforcement follows the action, the better the learning of this action will be. Therefore, it is desirable to encourage immediately after achieving high performance results.

Criticism of actions and deeds (including self-criticism) is a method of education (self-education), involving consideration, discussion, analysis of something in order to assess and identify the shortcomings of an object or phenomenon. It is important to keep in mind that criticism is not a simple emotional reaction to a negative act: it should encourage the cadet to correct shortcomings. Choosing this method, it is necessary to realize that criticism causes the pupil a complex of negative experiences: a feeling of awkwardness, shame, guilt, fear of losing prestige, dropping authority, and even a depressed state.

It should be borne in mind that different people react to criticism in different ways. Some perceive criticism adequately, recognize shortcomings and try to improve. Some, accepting criticism, realize and admit guilt, however, since criticism severely hurts their self-esteem, they hold a grudge. Tact is especially important in criticizing such cadets. Others internally or externally do not recognize flaws and at the same time seek excuses. In such cases, criticism should be combined with the method of persuasion.

In criticism, one should show respect, avoid quibbles, not hurt one's self-esteem, and take into account individual sensitivity to criticism. Criticism can be accompanied by tactful condemnation, humor. In some cases, it is necessary to criticize publicly, publicly, openly, in some cases, faceto-face in an individual conversation.

It is necessary to criticize not the personality of the cadet, but his actions and deeds. Constructive criticism refers only to the assessment of actions when the pupil does something mediocre, and the educator explains why this is so, without mentioning the character, level of intellectual development, nationality, gender of the pupil.

Criticism should be based on the positive qualities in the personality of the cadet, that is, before listing the identified negative facts that have become the subject of criticism, it is recommended in the conversation to first list his positive characteristics and study results.

Criticizing, one should not dwell on the discussion of the shortcomings identified by the cadet. It is necessary to disclose the causes of the identified shortcomings, look for ways to eliminate them and work out measures for their prevention together with the ward. At the same time, one should criticize only those cases for which the cadet was responsible.

Criticism may include the teacher-curator listing reasonable and reliable facts, demonstrating his emotional attitude to the revealed facts and calling for necessary actions to correct the situation and prevent similar cases in the future. It is effective if criticism from teachers and course leaders, the so-called criticism from above, is combined with reasonable criticism from other cadets, with the so-called criticism from below.

Individual tasks and assignments allow the teacher-curator to individually influence the personality of a particular cadet in the right direction, developing the necessary moral and professional qualities in him. It is recommended to give individual service assignments and assignments to self-confident cadets in order to artificially create a "success situation", increase self-confidence and self-esteem. Cadets who are weak in some kind of activity may not immediately learn how to do something quickly and at a high level. In such cases, curators are encouraged to mark the first positive developments, highlight the first achievements and encourage the first steps in the right direction.

When giving individual tasks and assignments, it is recommended to formulate them clearly and clearly, explain the meaning of the tasks set, show their practical significance for educational and service activities, outline ways to solve them, give confidence in the possibility of successful execution of assignments, encourage activity, if necessary, provide assistance and be sure to evaluate the result achieved.

Some cadets may perceive additional tasks and assignments as an annoying necessity, therefore, involvement in other activities must be carried out in a delicate form. When giving individual tasks and assignments, the principle of transition from a simple task to a complex one should be strictly observed.

The method of trust in individual educational work consists in the systematic assignment of various official and public tasks to cadets, who currently do not fully meet the requirements of the practical tasks assigned to them. The mechanism of educational influence consists in the fact that trust brings unexpected joy, pleasant surprise, on the basis of which a sense of duty and responsibility, organization and initiative develop.

By providing trust, the educator relies on the positive character traits of the pupil, expecting their manifestation and stimulating their manifestation in activity. Therefore, using the method of trust, the teacher-curator should be reminded of the positive qualities of the cadet and tell him what actions and deeds are expected of him, while informing him that completing the tasks set will increase his authority in the eyes of the team representatives.

Assignments should be meaningful, at the same time feasible, interesting, suitable for the interests and inclinations of the cadet. It is advisable to give tasks that can be completed in a relatively short time so that he can see positive results sooner.

It should be remembered that the method of trust shows effectiveness in the presence of the unconditional authority of the teacher-curator, the absence of conflicts between him and the cadet.

The method of providing friendly assistance is used in case of difficulties in the educational and professional activities and personal life of cadets. Friendly assistance can be provided by both the permanent staff of an educational organization (a teacher-curator) and his comrades, while it can be both moral (psychological) and, in some cases, material.

Moral (psychological) assistance may include individual advice and recommendations from a teacher-curator on how to act in a particular case, explanations of unclear issues in the field of study and everyday life. Cadets especially need help in the form of moral support for acute experiences during the resolution of interpersonal conflicts and other life problems. The curator's advice is an effective help in determining the prospects of service and life in general. The teacher-curator should take into account that a sign of a healthy team is a developed system of mutual assistance between the cadets themselves.

The method of coercion may be a method of individual educational influence, which encourages insufficiently educated cadets to properly perform their duties despite their unwillingness to realize guilt. Coercion is carried out by the teacher-curator through the application of the following measures: categorical demands, prohibitions, warnings about possible punishment, convictions, petitions for disciplinary punishment. It is recommended to resort to coercion when other methods of influencing the personality of the cadet have been exhausted.

At the same time, coercion is an effective method when it is carried out in combination with persuasion and other methods of educational influence. Using the method of coercion, it is necessary to monitor how the cadet performs the tasks assigned to him, and take action if he does not do so. Failure to comply with the requirements in the absence of control leads to a decrease in the authority of the educator and moral decay in the team.

Summing up the requirements and recommendations for the application of methods of individual educational work, it is necessary to quote the words of the great Soviet teacher A. S. Makarenko: "No pedagogical tool, even the generally accepted one, which is usually suggestion, explanation, conversation, and social impact, can always be recognized as absolutely useful. The best remedy in some cases is bound to be the worst. No remedy can be considered from the point of view of usefulness or harmfulness, taken in isolation from the entire system of remedies. And finally, no system of funds can be recommended as a permanent system" [24]. The expert survey also confirmed the importance of the teacher-curator's knowledge of the complex of methods of individual educational work with cadets and knowledge of the specifics of their application.

Conclusions and conclusion

The results of the conducted research allow us to formulate the following recommendations for teachers-curators of educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal AffairsOf Russia:

  1. To master the peculiarities of the application of methods of individual educational work: persuasion, example, competition, exercises, encouragement, criticism of actions and deeds, approval, individual tasks and assignments, trust, coercion, providing companionship.
  2. When applying the methods of individual educational work, observe the pedagogical requirements: reliance on early prevention; preliminary study of the individual characteristics of the cadet's personality; differentiated and individual approach, purposefulness, consistency, planning, regularity of measures, sequence of application of influence.
  3. To carry out educational influence on the personality of cadets in the system of individual educational work based on the principles of:

? complexity and consistency (It is impossible to limit oneself to certain methods of education, for example, to focus on punishment, it is necessary to select methods of influence adequate to the current conditions of their application. This principle includes the requirement of unity and consistency of educational influences of all subjects of education, the requirement of subordination "the elder educates the younger, the boss the subordinate").

? Relying on the example and authority of the teacher-curator.

? Pedagogical cooperation.

? Consciousness (Priority belongs to the methods of persuasion, explanation, justification, comparison, proof, example).

? Openness (Both the curator and the cadet must tell the truth, not dissemble, not avoid acute issues, not allow discrepancies between word and deed, theory and experience).

? Educational activities (Education should not be limited to verbal methods of influence, a combination of educational words and educational work is necessary inclusion in educational, sports, cultural, social, etc. types of work).

? Humanism (Educational influence should not humiliate the dignity of the individual, it should be based on mutual respect. Humanism presupposes reliance on the positive in the individual and the team).

? Reliance on the collective ("education in the collective and through the collective").

? Individualization and differentiation of education (While doing educational work, it is necessary to identify the individual characteristics of the courant, take them into account in the choice of methods and means of education. It is recommended to take into account the results of the cadet's educational and service activities, his compliance with the requirements of official discipline and legality, etc.).

  1. To organize and carry out educational impact on the personality of cadets in the system of individual educational work of teachers-curators in accordance with the requirements:

? early prevention, preference of preventive measures of educational impact to correctional ones;

? preliminary study of the individual characteristics of the cadet's personality;

? observance of an individual approach to each pupil;

? purposefulness and consistency of educational impact;

? planning and regularity of the implementation of impact measures;

? consistency in the use of means and methods of education, the cyclical nature of the efforts undertaken by the teacher-curator;

? combinations of various forms and methods of educational influence;

? compliance of the selected methods and forms of educational influence with the norms of professional ethics and official etiquette;

? organizing stable feedback, taking into account the position of the pupil, creating the opportunity to speak freely;

? taking into account the scientific recommendations of teachers and psychologists.

  1. The choice of methods of individual educational work should be carried out depending on the experience of the subjects of education (including the teacher-curator and the cadet), goals, objectives, content and conditions of individual educational work, personal and professional characteristics of the cadet. The teacher-curator himself must take responsibility and make the optimal choice of the method (or methods) of educational influence. An experienced teacher-curator does not focus on the same methods, even if they previously brought success. He knows how to combine different methods of influence, combines measures of positive and negative stimulation (he knows when a "stick" is needed, and when a "carrot" is needed).
  2. Vary the number of educational methods used in one pedagogical situation. In some cases, limit yourself to one method, in others comprehensively apply methods of educational influence, vary them.

Thus, only the skillful application of the entire set of methods of individual educational influence ensures success in the education of cadets and the formation of necessary professional and personal qualities in them.

The perspective of the study is to empirically verify the effectiveness of the described methods of individual educational work and methodological recommendations for their application in the activities of the teacher-curator of the University of the Ministry of Internal AffairsIn Russia, through a formative experiment, during which it is planned to identify significant differences in the indicators of educational and service activities of cadets in experimental and control groups, in which targeted individual educational work of teachers-curators of educational units will or will not be carried out.

References
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The work "Methods of individual educational work of teachers-curators in universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia" is presented for review. The study provides a brief overview of the research and the results of the integrated use of various methods of educational influence on the personality, depending on specific conditions. The subject of the study. The work is aimed at describing the methods of educational influence on personality in the system of individual educational work of teachers-curators at universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The author notes that the teachers-curators are insufficiently focused on the application of individual forms and methods of educational work. The methodology of the study. The author considers a number of works that address the problem of curation and organization of educational work in educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The relevance of research. The problem raised in the article is relevant. The author notes that teachers-curators at universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia do not pay enough attention to the use of individual forms and methods of educational work. At the same time, the educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia are aimed at training and educating new generations of cadets and trainees, professionals with solid moral principles. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the author describes the methods of educational influence on personality in the system of individual educational work of teachers-curators at universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. However, the paper does not describe the approbation of the developed materials and does not show the effectiveness of their implementation. Specific empirical data were not provided. Style, structure, content. The style of presentation corresponds to publications of this level. The language of the work is scientific. The structure of the work is clearly traced, the author highlights the main semantic parts. The logic in the work can be traced. The volume of the article meets the requirements for works of this level. The introduction of the paper briefly describes the relevance of the problem. The author notes that the internal affairs bodies need educated, highly moral young people who are able to adequately fulfill their professional duties. In educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, all conditions are created for obtaining high-quality education and ensuring the educational process through the development of the institute of curatorship. The following section provides a brief overview of the research. The author considers various aspects of the organization of educational work of curators of educational groups of universities of law enforcement agencies of Russia: functionality, principles and conditions, main tasks, as well as a number of areas (socio-psychological, didactic adaptation of cadets of the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, professional education and increasing the motivation of students). Special attention is paid to the consideration of pedagogical aspects of planning the work of teachers-curators, individual forms of educational work of teachers-curators in universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and universities of other "law enforcement" departments, as well as educational activities. The analysis allowed the author to note that the teachers-curators are insufficiently focused on the application of individual forms and methods of educational work. The next section is devoted to the description of the results of the conducted research and their discussion. The author notes that the most effective should be considered the complex use of various methods of educational influence on a person, depending on specific conditions. Further, the work highlights the provisions and principles on the basis of which the application of specific methods of educational work in relation to cadets of universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia should be based. These are: reliance on verbal (explanations, arguments, proofs, comparisons, etc.) and non-verbal (demonstration, example, joint activity) effects, methods of influence (persuasion, encouragement, example, exercises, etc.), forms of influence (conversations, assignments, inducements to accept and fulfill obligations, individual conversations etc.), complexity and consistency, reliance on the example and authority of the teacher-curator, pedagogical cooperation, consciousness, openness, educational activities, humanism, reliance on the collective, individualization and differentiation of education. Special attention is paid to the description of the requirements for the organization and conduct of educational impact on the personality of cadets in the system of individual educational work of teachers-curators, as well as methods of education: persuasion, example, competition, exercise, encouragement, criticism of actions and deeds, approval, individual tasks and assignments, the method of trust, coercion and friendly assistance. In conclusion, the conclusions of the work carried out are presented. The author notes that only the skillful application of the entire set of methods of individual educational influence in educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia ensures success in educating cadets and forming the necessary professional and personal qualities in them. Bibliography. The bibliography of the article includes 19 domestic sources, publications for the last three years are present. The list includes articles, abstracts and online sources. The sources are mostly incorrectly and uniformly designed. Appeal to opponents. Recommendations: 1) expand the bibliographic list by including modern scientific sources; 2) arrange the bibliographic list in accordance with the requirements; 3) it is necessary to conduct an empirical study to test and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed provisions, describe it and analyze the results; 4) it is important to develop recommendations based on the results of the study; 5) in there are typos in the work; syntactic, stylistic and semantic inaccuracies, unnecessary punctuation marks or their absence (for example, "... developing the necessary moral and professional qualities in him ...", etc.). Conclusions. The problems of the article are of undoubted relevance, theoretical and practical value; it will be of interest to specialists who deal with the problems of educational work in educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The article may be recommended for publication. Taking into account the highlighted recommendations and making appropriate changes, it is possible to submit to the editorial board a research article that is characterized by scientific novelty and significance.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The review of the article "Methods of individual educational work of teachers-curators in universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia" The relevance of the research topic and its compliance with the specialization of the journal "Pedagogy and Education" is not in doubt due to the trends in the transformation of Russian education, which determine the priorities of professional training of a specialist. The subject of the study is the educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia aimed at training and educating new generations of cadets and trainees, professionals with solid moral principles. The analysis of such categories as "educational work", "professional education", "", "curatorial activity", "educational impact", etc. is presented as a problem field of the study. The system of individual educational work of teachers-curators at universities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia has been identified and analyzed in detail. The results of the analysis showed that teachers-curators of training platoons "... in their activities, in order to increase its effectiveness and get the expected result of influencing the consciousness of cadets and listeners, they must use the entire prescribed set of methods and forms of education. It is assumed that curatorial activities should be strictly regulated and have a solid scientific and pedagogical basis. The advantage of the work is the key, cross-cutting leading ideas that the most effective should be considered the integrated use of various methods of educational influence on the individual, depending on specific conditions. The research is aimed at identifying the role of the personal example of a teacher-curator, which is the psychological basis of his authority and moral right to be an educator. Of interest is an intelligence study in the form of an express questionnaire of teachers-curators at the Ryazan branch of the Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia named after V.Ya. Kikot. The methodology of the reviewed work is based on a comprehensive pedagogical analysis, analysis and generalization of methodological techniques, and the formulation of conclusions. The article implements in sufficient detail the systematization and generalization of data related to the establishment that the skillful use of the entire set of methods of individual educational influence ensures success in the education of cadets and the formation of necessary professional and personal qualities in them. The article has a scientific novelty related to the consideration of the functionality, principles and conditions, the main tasks of the educational work of teachers-curators with a training platoon (group). The structure of the article meets the requirements for scientific publications. A detailed qualitative analysis of the results obtained on the subject under study is presented. The content of the article, which examines the importance of an individual approach in the educational work of the curator of the training platoon at the university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, generally corresponds to its title. The style of presentation of the material meets the requirements for scientific publications. The bibliography corresponds to the content of the article and is represented by 24 literary sources. The results of the study substantiate the importance of a theoretical study of the peculiarities of educational work carried out by teachers-curators in educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The article arouses readers' interest and can be recommended for publication.