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Verbal vocabulary as a means of expressing interpersonal relations in Russian and Chinese

Li Syuyui

Postgraduate student, Department of General and Russian Linguistics, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

117198, Russia, Moscow, Miklukh-Maklaya str., 6

lixiuyu0525@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8698.2024.4.70345

EDN:

XWAZGF

Received:

28-03-2024


Published:

04-04-2024


Abstract: The subject of the study is the semantic and functional features of the lexico-semantic group of verbs denoting interpersonal relations in the Russian and Chinese languages. The verbal vocabulary representing the category of relationship describes the relationships that arise between people in the form of feelings, judgments and appeals to each other in the course of everyday life. The purpose of the proposed article is to identify the semantic and functional features of the verbs of the lexico-semantic group of interpersonal relations in the system of Russian and Chinese languages. The study revealed similarities and differences in the meaning of these verbs. As the analysis showed, some Chinese verbs do not match the meaning of the verbs of the Russian language. This article also examines the types of semantic changes in the semantic structure of the verbal word form functioning in the context.The main method of studying this group of verbs in Russian and Chinese is the comparative method. The descriptive method and the functional-semantic method, as well as the method of component analysis, were used in the selection and use of linguistic material. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the verbs of interpersonal relations are still insufficiently studied on the materials of the Russian and Chinese languages. The results of the research can be used in the practice of teaching university courses in such disciplines as cognitive linguistics, linguoculturology, and intercultural communication. The study allows us to conclude that the verbs of interpersonal relationships are quite often used in both languages. The meanings of Chinese and Russian verbs are not always equivalent. Their semantic structures may also differ. The analysis of interlanguage gaps reveals the presence of incomplete lexical correspondence to a foreign word. Some verbal lexicons express interpersonal relationships in their direct meanings, while others develop this ability as a result of semantic modulation and semantic derivation. Interpersonal relationships can be expressed by verbs from other lexico-semantic groups, acquiring the semantics of interpersonal relationships in the context. In conclusion, we note that expressions of interpersonal relationships can also be verb-noun combinations, which, when analyzing various specifiers in the context, indicate the reasons for a positive or negative attitude towards a person.


Keywords:

lexicon, verb, interpersonal relations, semantic structure, verb-name combinations, emotional-evaluative attitude, external manifestation of attitude, verbs of contact, Russian language, Chinese language

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

In reality, in general and in the sphere of human activity, relations, individual acts, states, deeds, actions are organically linked to each other, interact, and language has a fairly rich set of means to express these connections. But along with these well-studied tools, there are lexical tools in the dictionary that perform the functions of expressing relationships. These include, first of all, verbs.

Russian Russian vocabulary, the verb, according to N. Y. Shvedova, occupies a central place and is the "dominant of the Russian vocabulary" [1, p. 409]. From the point of view of vocabulary, the verb includes a large class of words that differ in complexity in meaning. This feature of verb semantics, due to the complex nature of the displayed situations, explains the special difficulties of classifying verbal vocabulary, which are noted by all researchers.

The lexico-semantic group (hereinafter referred to as LSG) is considered as one of the most important ways to systematize the lexical composition of a language. LSG is a set of linguistic units related to one part of speech, united by a common meaning and consisting of a common categorical and lexical seme and differential semes. The meaning of verbs can be represented as a set of semantic components. Semes that are in certain relationships and hierarchical relationships form the semantic structure of the verb. In comparison with the categorical-lexical seme, the integral seme is more specific and is implemented using differential semes.

Of course, the role of the verb in the semantic structure of the sentence and in the Russian language system as a whole is central, organizing [2, p. 46]. The LSG of verbal words has a complex semantic structure by nature. According to V. V. Vinogradov, "the semantic structure of the verb is more capacious and flexible than all other grammatical categories. This property of the verb depends on the features of the grammatical structure of the verb" [3]. This statement is shared by many scientists in the field of Russian and Chinese linguistics, who, in turn, believe that the verb occupies a key place in the semantic structure and controls other semantic components.

Reflecting objective reality, language also reflects the relations that exist in the world [4, p. 2594]. The verbal vocabulary of interpersonal relations, representing the subfield of relationships, describes the relationships that arise between people in the form of feelings, judgments and appeals to each other in the process of everyday life: love, friendship, faith, etc. Interpersonal relationships are understood as a set of different interactions between people in the process of their communication. At all times, interpersonal relationships have been an important part of people's lives, they provide us with the emotions and experiences necessary for the harmonious development of personality, motivation and just a sense of satisfaction with life [5, p. 41]. It is verbs that do not denote individual phenomena, but phenomena-situations, phenomena-relationships, actions-relationships. In her research, T. P. Akimova analyzes the verbs of interpersonal relationships as "anthropocentric units", since these verbs verbally formalize relationships between people [6, p. 12]. The idea of studying the lexical and semantic space of a language in the aspect of an anthropocentric paradigm is now widely recognized.

The material for the study was a selection of verbs from L. G. Babenko's explanatory dictionaries (1999) [7, pp. 593-606]. According to her research, the verbs of interpersonal relations are expressed in the Russian language system by verbs of emotional and evaluative attitude, external manifestation of attitude, contact.

The first group includes verbs with the meaning of an emotional-evaluative relationship, where the integral seme "the nature of an emotional-evaluative relationship" can be represented as: positive, negative, and neutral attitude. For example: I hate going to my superiors and achieving something.; We do not know how to respect a person, completely disagreeing with him.

An extensive group consists of verbs of the external manifestation of the relationship, in which the integral seme "the way of manifestation of the relationship" can be distinguished. The semantic structure of these verbs is characterized by the presence of evaluation and feeling. The external manifestation of a negative and positive attitude can be expressed by speech (praise, duplicity), facial expressions (smile, frown), gesture (hug, threaten), action (court, treat), behavior (undead, insult), etc. For example: He raised his voice and began to shake his finger.; He read, he frowned and glared at Kornilov.; 133 people will not return home, they will not hug their loved ones.

Note that the same verb in different contexts may have different ways of external manifestation of the relationship. For example: And if the mother asks for help to take care of him, then there is nothing wrong with that.; Did not work, did not take care of the child, there is unsanitary conditions in the house, thick dark fabric on the windows, walking on the street is prohibited.; A friend of Peter Sabashnikov begins to take care of anyone. The verb to care, which acts in the meaning of "to show caring attitude to someone, providing help, services to someone", is used in the first and second sentences, when used, the sign "action" is actualized, and in the third sentence this verb, which has the meaning "to show special attention to someone (usually to a woman, a girl), to take care of her, seeking her favor", expresses the external manifestation of the relationship with the help of the differential sign "gesture".

The group of contact verbs consists of such verbs as get married, get acquainted, get in touch, arrange, etc. For example: The day before we met at a Penderetsky concert, it turned out that Alibasov adores him and understands his music like no one else.; I was reluctant to contact him at all.

The semantic structure of verbal word forms can be rearranged depending on the context. Exploring the functioning of the verb in the text, S. P. Lopushanskaya will establish two types of semantic changes in the semantic structure of the word form semantic modulation and semantic derivation.

Semantic changes of a modulatory nature are noted in the word forms of the verbs respect, relate, etc. The object of the relationship can be defined as abstract, expressed in the text by names describing the qualities and properties of a person [8, p. 76]. So, in the context: "I have high hopes for you," whispered the first minister, who always respected the clear mind of his pupil, the attitude of the subject to the object is transmitted through the attitude to the personal qualities of the object.

Derivational semantic changes are noted in the semantic structure of verbs of other LSGs, in which categorical-lexical semes "qualitative state", "emotional state", "displacement" and others are realized in direct lexical meaning [9, p. 231]. In the concept of Y. D. Apresyan, semantic derivation leads to the appearance of a new meaning for the word [10, p. 187].

So, in the sentence: That's how I keep it in my memory. And I miss him very much the verb to miss with the direct meaning "to languish because of the absence of someone", referring to the LSG "emotional state", expresses interpersonal relationships. In this context, the object of the relationship is indicated by the form of the dative case with the preposition by: by it.

The verb of the qualitative state of being angry /angry, acting in the direct meaning of "feeling irritation, dissatisfaction, anger at someone", can also express interpersonal relationships: Ilona is no longer angry at Valera, but at herself. The object of the relationship is expressed in the accusative form with the preposition to: to Valera; to himself. In this context: Thinking that the teacher was angry that we had messed up in class, I rushed to pick up the piece of paper indicating the reason for the negative attitude of the subject teacher to the object to us by using the words for.

It is important to note that the Chinese verb, ch? [sh?ng q?] (to get angry/angry), which has lexical and semantic variants of meaning, does not coincide in meaning with the verbs of the Russian language. The verb sh?ng q? in Chinese means: a) get angry; b) vitality. Let's give an example: (My father was not angry); (The youth is very energetic). Irritation as the main (primary) meaning of the verb to get angry refers to the LSG of interpersonal relationships, but unlike the Chinese verb, there is no such meaning as vitality in the Russian verb to get angry.

There is also a situation where there are some Russian verbs, the meaning of which is expressed by phrases in Chinese. For example: the meaning of the Russian verb to exchange glances in Chinese is expressed as the phrase: [h? sh? y?n s?] - (to exchange) + (look): (To exchange glances with a neighbor). In order to express the meaning of the Russian verb equivalently, it is necessary to use this particular combination, it is impossible to separate it. Similar verbs are: discredit (...... [p? hu?i...m?ng sh?ng]), discriminate (?...... [du?......q? sh?]), etc.

Interpersonal relations can be expressed not by a separate verbal lexeme, but by a verb-noun combination [11, p. 14] containing another verb group. The verb, which is part of the verb-nominal combination, can be used to express interpersonal relations in its direct meaning, and can also be used figuratively, as noted by M. V. Frolova, "at the same time, modulation or derivational semantic changes occur in the semantic structure of verbal word forms" [12, p. 107].

Note that a verb with a noun can express interpersonal relationships as an external manifestation of an attitude, which can be expressed by verbs to detect, show, render, express/express and others in combination with the noun gratitude, tenderness, affection, courtesy, etc.: express gratitude, express tenderness, show concern. The semantic load is transferred to the noun; the meaning of the interpersonal relationship expresses the entire verb-noun combination [13, p. 19].

So, in the context of: My Lord, let me express my gratitude in search of a girl the verb express acts in the direct meaning of "show, discover by some external manifestation", and the integral seme "method of external manifestation of the relationship" is concretized by the differential sign "speech" in the semantic structure of the verb express, which is part of the verb-nominal I want to express my gratitude. This phrase is synonymous with the verb to thank.

The verb to crumble is usually used in the basic meaning of "something falls and rolls over the surface of something." In the context: Out of politeness, the young woman was full of thanks, although she was sure in advance that the shirt taken from the hostess's stocks would not suit her in any way this verb means that "a person verbally expresses his obsequious, courteous attitude towards someone" and expresses interpersonal relations. The verb to crumble in combination with the word in gratitude indicates both the action to which the verb refers and the external manifestation of a positive attitude. This phrase is used to express the sincere and deep gratitude of the subject.

In Chinese, the same verb-noun combinations are also used to Express the gratitude which can be expressed as follows: [bi?o d?] (Express) + /you [g?n j? / g?n xi?] (thanks). For example: ,, (I'm not very good at thanking people, but you did it to me, old hunter, purpose in life).

We found that several verb-noun combinations have meanings close to the meaning of the verb to make friends. In the context of: You're right, I'm really trying to make friends with a powerful magician. The combination of making friends performs a kind of characterological function. The establishment of friendly relations with other people manifests itself in the subject as a desire. In the sentence, the Count loved me and sincerely imposed on me as friends, but I did not feel anything like friendship for him and did not even like his meaning of the phrase to impose on friends is also close in meaning to the verb to make friends, but has a different shade, the positive assessment of this verb is erased.

Using such combinations to resign, to resign, in their main lexical meaning they mean "to terminate a relationship" in which the integral seme "the nature of contact" is realized. For example: Our friends' acquaintances have gradually left; Naryshkin, Obolensky in Moscow, Tuchkov, having also received his resignation, goes home.; She gave her resignation to her own mother, you will not be invited to visit.

Based on my research, the following conclusions can be drawn. Interpersonal verbs are quite often used in both languages, the meanings of which are not always equivalent. Their semantic structures may also differ. The analysis of interlanguage gaps reveals the presence of incomplete lexical correspondence to a foreign word. It has been established that some verbs in two languages express interpersonal relationships in their direct meanings, while others develop this ability as a result of semantic modulation and semantic derivation. As the analysis has shown, expressions of interpersonal relationships can also be such verb-nominal combinations as expressing gratitude, showering gratitude, entering into friendship, resigning, resigning, and others, which, when analyzing various specifiers in the context, indicate the reasons for a positive or negative attitude towards a person.

References
1. Shvedova, N. Y. (1995). Verb as a dominant of Russian vocabulary. Philological Collection: To the 100th anniversary of the birth of Acad. . . Vinogradov (pp. 409-414). Moscow: Institute of Russian Language.
2. Babenko, L. G. (Ed.). (1997). Russian verb lexicon: paradigm intersectionality: In memory of Era Vasilievna Kuznetsova. Yekaterinburg: Ural University Press.
3. Vinogradov, V. V. (1986). Russian language [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from https://slovari.ru/default.aspx?s=0&p=5310&0a0=15
4. Kostitsina, R. V. (2023). New project of semantic classification of verb lexicon of the Russian language. Philological sciences. Issues of theory and practice, 8, 2592-2599.
5. Belova, E. E., & Belyaeva, A. A. (2021). Peculiarities of teaching verb synonymy to high school students. Gaudeamus, 3(49), 41-46.
6. Akimova, T. P. (2003). Communicative and pragmatic features of verbs of interpersonal relations. Dissertation of Ph.D. in Philology. Volgograd.
7. Babenko, L. G. (Ed.). (1999). Explanatory dictionary of Russian verbs. Ideographic description. English equivalents. Synonyms. Antonyms. Moscow: AST-PRESS.
8. Frolova, M. V. (2007). Functional-semantic features of verbs with the meaning of interpersonal relations (on the material of A. Platonov’s story “Kotlovan”). Polilinguality and transcultural practices, 4, 74-79.
9. Starodubtseva, N. A., & Kharchenko, S. Y. (2022). Specificity of functioning of verbs of interpersonal relations in the prose of A.P. Chekhov. Izvestiya VGPU, 1(164), 229-234.
10. Apresyan, Y. D. (1974). Lexical semantics. Synonymic means of language. oscow.
11. Mineeva, Z. I., & Nikolaev, A. A. (2024). New predicatives: formation, semantics, use. Scientific Notes of Petrozavodsk State University, 3, 14-20.
12. Frolova, M. V. (2008). Functioning of verbs of interpersonal and social relations in the works of Russian literature of the 20s of the twentieth century (on the material of the texts of A. P. Platonov and M. A. Bulgakov). Dissertation of Ph.D. in Philology. Volgograd.
13. Shvedova, N. Y. (Ed.). (1980). Russian Grammar: [in 2 vols.]. Acad. of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of Russian Yaz. Moscow: Nauka.

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The lexical composition of a language, especially verb forms, is certainly a means of expressing interpersonal relationships. This work is based on a comparison of Russian and Chinese verbal vocabulary, which has a pronounced nomination of the expression of the above position. The author states that "in reality, in general, and in the sphere of human activity, relations, individual acts, states, deeds, actions are organically linked to each other, interact, and language has a fairly rich set of means to express these connections. But along with these well-studied tools, there are lexical tools in the dictionary that perform the functions of expressing relationships. These include, first of all, verbs." The judgment has a fairly objective tone, it can be recognized as the starting point of the study. The material is fully balanced in the format of scientific research: the text contains references to both theoretical works and fully presents practical experience. Russian Russian vocabulary, for example, "in the system of Russian vocabulary, the verb, according to N. Y. Shvedova, occupies a central place and is the "dominant of the Russian vocabulary." From the point of view of vocabulary, the verb includes a large class of words that differ in complexity in meaning. This feature of verb semantics, due to the complex nature of the displayed situations, explains the special difficulties of classifying verbal vocabulary, which are noted by all researchers." I think that the developments can be productively used in university practice, used as an illustrative background in the framework of mastering Russian and Chinese languages. The novelty of the work lies in the subject-thematic reversal of the problem, while multi-format language systems are taken as a linguistic base. Judgments in the course of work are verified, accurate, the categorical apparatus is unified. For example, "the verbal vocabulary of interpersonal relations, representing the subfield of relationships, describes the relationships that arise between people in the form of feelings, judgments and appeals to each other in the process of everyday life: love, friendship, faith, etc. Interpersonal relationships are understood as a set of different interactions between people in the process of their communication. At all times, interpersonal relationships have been an important part of people's lives, they provide us with the emotions and experiences necessary for the harmonious development of personality, motivation and just a sense of satisfaction with life ...". Thus, the style of this work fully correlates with the actual scientific type of speech. The material for this study was a selection of verbs from L. G. Babenko's explanatory dictionaries (1999) [7, pp. 593-606]. The author notes that "according to research, the verbs of interpersonal relations are expressed in the Russian language system by verbs of emotional and evaluative attitude, external manifestation of attitude, contact." In my opinion, there are enough examples, although the sample format is key: "An extensive group consists of verbs of the external manifestation of a relationship, in which one can distinguish the integral seme "the way of manifestation of a relationship." The semantic structure of these verbs is characterized by the presence of evaluation and feeling. The external manifestation of a negative and positive attitude can be expressed by speech (praise, duplicity), facial expressions (smile, frown), gesture (hug, threaten), action (court, treat), behavior (undead, insult), etc. For example: He raised his voice and began to shake his finger.; He read, he frowned and glared at Kornilov.; 133 people will not return home, they will not hug their loved ones," or "The group of contact verbs consists of such verbs as get married, get acquainted, get in touch, arrange, etc. For example: The day before we met at a Penderetsky concert, it turned out that Alibasov adores him and understands his music like no one else.; I was reluctant to contact him at all," or "So, in the sentence: This is how I keep him in my memory. And I miss him very much the verb to miss with the direct meaning "to languish because of the absence of someone", referring to the LSG "emotional state", expresses interpersonal relationships. In this context, the object of the relationship is indicated by the form of the dative case with the preposition by: according to it," etc. The difference / difference between the Russian verbal vocabulary and the Chinese is demonstrated constructively, precisely: "it is important to note that the Chinese verb t? [sh?ng q?] (to be angry/angry), which has lexical and semantic variants of meaning, does not match meaning with verbs of the Russian language. The verb sh?ng q? in Chinese means: a) get angry; b) vitality. Let's give an example: ?????? (My father was not angry); ????????? (Young people are very energetic). Irritation as the main (primary) meaning of the verb to get angry refers to the LSG of interpersonal relations, but unlike the Chinese verb, there is no such meaning as vitality in the Russian verb to get angry," or "In Chinese, similar verb-noun combinations are also used to express gratitude, which can be expressed as follows: ?? [bi?o d?] (express) + ??/?? [g?n j? / g?n xi?] (gratitude). For example: ??????????,???????????????,???????? (I'm not very good at thanking people, but you did it to me, old hunter, purpose in life)," etc. The main block concerns the literal unfolding of the topic, the achievements of the target component. I believe that these indicators have been met, the problem as such has been disclosed. M.B. the work also sets a certain impetus for further research, which is also very good. The general requirements of the publication have been taken into account; formal editing of the text is unnecessary. The author finally comes to the conclusion that "when analyzing interlanguage gaps, the presence of incomplete lexical correspondence to a foreign word is revealed. It has been established that some verbs in two languages express interpersonal relationships in their direct meanings, while others develop this ability as a result of semantic modulation and semantic derivation. As the analysis has shown, expressions of interpersonal relationships can also be such verb-nominal combinations as expressing gratitude, showering gratitude, entering into friendship, resigning, resigning, and others, which, when analyzing various specifiers in the context, indicate the reasons for a positive or negative attitude towards a person." There are no contradictions in this part, the conclusion is given within the genre. The reference "background" is focused on the works of N.Y. Shvedova, V.V. Vinogradov, T.P. Akimova, M.V. Frolova, Yu.D. Apresyan, etc. The material may be of interest to readers, since it is built in the mode of comparing two different language systems, but having a common communicative qualification of connectivity. I think that the work "Verbal vocabulary as a means of expressing interpersonal relations in Russian and Chinese" can be recommended for publication in the journal "Litera" of the publishing house "Nota Bene".