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Reference:

The algorithm of personnel turnover management of industrial enterprises

Kutaitseva Ol'ga Nikolaevna

PhD in Technical Science

Associate Professor, Chair of Economics, Institute of Economics and Industrial Management

105203, Russia, Moscow, ul. 15-Ya parkovaya, 8, office 302

okutaitseva@yandex.ru
Laptev Dmitrii Nikolaevich

PhD in Economics

Associate Professor, Chair of Economics, Institute of Economics and Industrial Management

105203, Russia, Moscow, ul. 15-Ya parkovaya, 8, office 316

d.n.laptev@mail.ru
Bakhmetyev Vadim Aleksandrovich

PhD in Economics

Chief Executive Officer, Institute of Economics and Industrial Management

105203, Russia, Moscow, ul. 15-Ya parkovaya, 8, office 312

bakh@bk.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0684.2024.1.69060

EDN:

SKLWLZ

Received:

21-11-2023


Published:

31-03-2024


Abstract: The object of research is staff turnover as a socio-economic phenomenon, the subject is the construction of an effective algorithm for managing it in an industrial enterprise. The authors identify the nature of staff turnover at the level of analysis of the causes of this phenomenon. Staff turnover is presented in the article as a multifaceted social phenomenon that has not only purely economic and managerial, but also psychological and general social aspects. The understanding developed on this basis allows us to form a methodological basis for building an effective algorithm for minimizing staff turnover. Particular attention is paid to the computational and mathematical justification of the processes under study and the solutions proposed on this basis. The article combines the methods of theoretical analysis and practical empirical research. The first allow us to identify the essential, structural and substantive aspects of the problem, while the second to offer specific calculations that substantiate theoretical postulates. The proposed algorithm is constructed on the basis of the abstraction method, which implies the allocation of individual stages, the justification of their significance, as well as the synthesis method, which implies the connection of stages into a single empirically based system. As a result of the conducted research, the authors come to the conclusion that an effective algorithm for managing staff turnover at an industrial enterprise should be divided into five interrelated stages. These stages include determining the level of staff turnover; determining the level of economic losses caused by staff turnover; determining the specific causes of staff turnover: determining a system of measures aimed at normalizing the process of releasing labor, improving the dismissal procedure, overcoming excessive turnover; determining the effect of implementing the developed measures, improving the dismissal procedure, overcoming excessive turnover. This algorithmization, combined with a comparative analysis of the costs of carrying out these activities and losses due to excessive turnover, allows you to bring the turnover rate to its natural rate (3-5%) will save about 2% of the annual wage fund. The theoretically grounded algorithm in combination with the presented calculation methodology determine the local scientific and methodological novelty of the presented article.


Keywords:

staff turnover, management, industrial enterprise, quitting, labor conditions, motivation, algorithm, staff management, hiring, calculation methodology

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction (problem statement)

It is widely known that the problems associated with managing the turnover of personnel of industrial enterprises operating in a modern market economy are not simple: the necessary labor force must be sought in the labor market, trained, create the necessary climate for teamwork, and finally, create motivation to achieve normal labor productivity. Despite the evidence of these requirements and the efforts of industrial enterprises in these areas, staff turnover has not ceased to be a problem [1, p. 118].

The staff turnover management algorithm and its methods in a market economy have specific features compared to the previous business conditions, to which the industrial industry has been accustomed for decades. In the planned system of the economy, an employee who started his career at some enterprise was destined to work there for a long time, and often, regardless of whether he wants it or not. The system of admission and dismissal in some ways resembled the Japanese system of lifelong employment: although there was freedom and the opportunity to change jobs at least once a month, it still did not make much sense - the differentiation of pay levels of different industries and enterprises was insignificant [2, p. 54].

In modern conditions, there are no restraining factors for the movement of labor. In many ways, this is why the staff turnover rate is increasing every year. In recent years, it has not been uncommon for employees to leave for other organizations in whole groups or teams. At the same time, some departments or entire production facilities were practically paralyzed [3, p. 180].

While new employees are being recruited, while they work with each other and become a team, time passes during which the company incurs losses related not only to the cost of labor adaptation of new employees. Losses are especially high with the departure of highly professional specialists to other enterprises, who, moreover, have an additional alternative to get a job abroad.

Research methodology

The research is based on a methodological combination of methods of theoretical analysis and practical empirical research, determined by the meaningful properties of the phenomena considered in the work. The first ones allow us to identify the essential, structural and substantive aspects of the problem, while the second ones offer specific calculations substantiating theoretical postulates. The proposed algorithm is constructed on the basis of the abstraction method, which implies the allocation of individual stages, the justification of their significance, as well as the synthesis method, which implies the connection of stages into a single empirically based system. Thus, the study is deductive and analytical-synthetic in nature.

The main part

It is necessary to distinguish, from our point of view, the natural level of staff turnover (Te) within 3-5% of the number of personnel, the equilibrium (TE) corresponding to the equilibrium (on the graph - point E) between profit losses and the costs of combating turnover, and the increased, actual (Tf), causing unacceptable economic losses.

The natural level contributes to the renewal of production teams. This process is ongoing and does not require any emergency measures on the part of human resources services and management. Some employees retire, some leave for various reasons, new employees come in their place this is how every enterprise functions.

But when turnover significantly exceeds 3-5%, in this case the costs become significant, having a tendency to increase with an increase in the outflow of personnel.

Staff turnover costs are losses caused by:

- equipment downtime due to the formation of empty workplaces;

- decrease in the quality of manufactured products;

- deterioration of equipment maintenance;

Thus, the methods of staff turnover management should be closely linked to the costs that an enterprise experiences with excessive staff turnover, on the one hand, as well as to the costs that it must incur as a result of the application of measures to combat turnover.

In Figure 1, we have presented a graph of the dependence of profit on staff turnover that we have built.

Fig.1 Dependence of profit on staff turnover

P is the dependence of profit on the level of staff turnover,

C is the dependence of losses from fluidity (or the cost of overcoming increasing fluidity) on its level,

Those are the natural turnover rate,

Tf the actual level of staff turnover,

E is the point of balance between declining profits and increasing costs of overcoming turnover,

Ce is the equilibrium level of expenses for overcoming the growing turnover.

TE is the level of fluidity corresponding to point E.,

Figure 2 shows the dependence of profit on the level of staff turnover in the enterprise. The figure shows the equilibrium state of the enterprise, in which the costs of combating turnover (Cf), which has a certain actual level (Tf), are compensated by profit, as a result of which the enterprise only covers its production costs. Naturally, any enterprise. It will strive to minimize profit losses (see Figure 2).

On the graph we have constructed, proposed in Figure 2. the difference between the costs of combating Ce turnover and the profit received by the Russian Federation is visible. The greater this difference, the higher the efficiency of turnover management in the enterprise.

Fig.2. Minimizing profit losses due to turnover control

As an example, we can cite the results of our research at a typical (in terms of turnover) industrial enterprise of transport engineering. According to observations over 15 years, the yield coefficient at the studied object was calculated, and it turned out to be in the range from 6 to 22%, while its average value was 13.1%. The excessive staff turnover was thus 9%.

As already mentioned, staff turnover management is the most important component of personnel movement management, which is a set of administrative actions aimed, firstly, at forming each employee's satisfaction with the industrial enterprise as a whole and a specific workplace, and, secondly, at organizing and rationally regulating the intraproduction movement of personnel.

The level of employee satisfaction with an organization (enterprise) is quantified as a coefficient of Ku:

Ku = 1 Tf,

where Tf is the yield coefficient.

In the enterprises we studied, over a 15-year period, the satisfaction level ranged from 78 to 94%, with an average value of 86.9%.

The level of satisfaction can also be assessed qualitatively on the basis of an analysis of the opinions of employees identified through questionnaires or interviews to express the reaction of employees to the personnel policy of an industrial enterprise and its individual directions.

In the algorithm of turnover management in industrial enterprises, the establishment of patterns of the turnover process and the dependence of the intensity of turnover on the socio-demographic characteristics of employees acts as the basis for personnel movement management. Knowing these patterns allows you to predict the number of layoffs and find ways to mitigate the negative impact of these factors. For example, the future level of turnover can be predicted depending on the time employees stay in the organization, due to the known inverse dependence of the intensity of voluntary layoffs on the length of service in the organization [4, p. 105]

According to the degree of manageability, turnover factors can be divided into three groups: factors arising at the enterprise itself - the level of remuneration, working conditions, the level of automation of labor, the prospect of professional growth, etc.; personal factors the age of employees, their level of education, work experience, etc.; factors external to the enterprise, - the economic situation in the region, family circumstances, the emergence of new enterprises, etc. In turn, in each of these groups, it is possible to identify factors that differ in the strength and nature of their impact on employee mobility.

Gradually reducing the level of turnover to an acceptable value can be represented, in particular, through the possibility of planning upcoming layoffs, linking dismissal processes with hiring processes, and assistance to dismissed employees (outplacement). To solve these and other issues, it is necessary to proceed from the specific situation at each enterprise.

Summarizing the above approaches to the study of staff turnover, all activities related to the management of staff turnover in the enterprise within the framework of the general personnel management of the enterprise can be presented in the form of the following stages (stages):

1. Determining the level of staff turnover

2. Determination of economic losses caused by turnover

3. Identification of specific causes of staff turnover

4. Definition of a system of measures aimed at overcoming excessive turnover

5. Determination of the effect of the implementation of the developed measures to overcome the excessive level of turnover [5, p. 73].

Let's consider the content of each of the proposed stages of the activities of the relevant personnel turnover management services at an industrial enterprise.

Stage 1. Determining the level of staff turnover

At this stage, it is necessary to answer the main question is the level of turnover so high that it leads to unjustified economic losses, loss of profit by the enterprise?

When determining the indicative level, it is desirable to analyze the dynamics of the company's indicators for as long as possible (recent years), as well as to identify the presence and magnitude of seasonal fluctuations in turnover.

A set of indicators is used to describe the flow rate process. The main one is the actual turnover coefficient, calculated as the ratio of the number of people who quit voluntarily and were dismissed for violating labor discipline to the average number of employees over the same period. This coefficient can be used to characterize the potential turnover in the near future, if the numerator is substituted not by the number of people fired, but by the number of employees who replied that they had a desire to change their place of work, to the number of respondents. Structural yield coefficients (yield intensity coefficients) are also used, which are calculated as the ratio of the yield coefficient of this group to the total yield coefficient.

Stage 2. Determining the level of economic losses caused by staff turnover

This is a very important stage, and at the same time one of the most time-consuming, since special data is needed to carry it out. The fact is that with the beginning of economic reforms in the country, one of the first managerial aspects that enterprises began to neglect was labor rationing, originally designed to identify reserves of labor productivity. However, in enterprises where the results of a large-scale sectoral reform are still poorly visible, traditional accounting of working time costs is carried out, labor standards are developed, observed and regularly reviewed, which naturally facilitates the implementation of the second stage of turnover management.

There are two groups of types of costs associated with a high level of staff turnover:

1. Dismissal:

- decrease in labor productivity in the period preceding dismissal; Time lost during interviews with those who are leaving;

- time spent documenting the dismissal;

- deterioration of the psychological climate in the team and a decrease in the level of labor and performance discipline (taken into account indirectly, through questionnaires and interviews).

2. Hiring a new employee:

- payment for advertising in the media to attract candidates;

- preparation and publication of information materials to familiarize candidates and new employees with the organization;

- the time spent checking the recommendations and information provided by the candidate;

- time spent interviewing a candidate;

- registration of personal files of new employees;

- entering information about new employees into the database;

- training of new employees;

- additional burden on employees associated with the need to help newcomers;

- a reduced level of labor productivity (on average at the level of 80% of the standard) during the first months of work [6, p. 28].

The costs associated with high staff turnover cannot be ignored; these are not only the direct costs of recruitment and adaptation, but also the indirect costs resulting from possible dissatisfaction with senior management, associates and clients with frequent staff changes, and the costs of wasting managers' time searching and recruiting new employees.

The problem should be dealt with in any case, therefore it is necessary to at least approximately estimate the amount of losses, which, in any case, mainly consists of the following indicators:

1. Loss of working time is the time interval between the dismissal of an employee and the acceptance of a new employee, during which an unfilled workplace does not produce products.

2. Losses caused by the termination procedure payment of severance payments to retiring employees (if provided), as well as the cost of working time of a human resources officer or a supervisor who issues a dismissal.

3. Losses caused by legal costs in connection with illegal dismissal, subsequent reinstatement and payment of time for forced absenteeism. In the case when a fired employee, even of his own volition, starts a lawsuit with the employer, referring to an improperly conducted dismissal procedure, it is quite rare in the CIS countries. In any case, "rare" does not mean "impossible", and with a high level of turnover, there are chances to meet with one of the "fighters for justice".

4. Losses caused by the procedure for hiring employees for a vacant workplace. These are the costs of searching for candidates (advertisements in the media, billboards announcing employment, etc.); the costs of selecting candidates (the cost of working time of the personnel service carrying out selection procedures - testing, interviewing, viewing questionnaires, etc., and the financial costs of the same procedures); the costs caused by registration of employed persons (the cost of working time of personnel service employees who carry out this registration, and the financial costs of this procedure); as well as direct costs of searching, selecting and registering candidates in the form of payment for the services of recruitment agencies, organizations engaged in personnel selection.

5. The cost of training an employed employee conducting an employee's labor adaptation, on-the-job training (mentoring, self-study, assistance from work colleagues, etc.); the cost of on-the-job training.

6. Reduced productivity of employees who decide to quit. A person who has decided for himself that, say, in a month he will quit, will never work with full dedication. And no amount of motivation, even the most sophisticated ones, usually helps.

7. The costs of forming stable labor collectives with a normal socio-psychological climate. Currently, it is a very common practice when the management of an enterprise organizes joint visits to gyms, celebrations, etc. for its employees in order to develop corporate culture, form a "team spirit", team cohesion.

The listed types of costs are calculated in the process of management accounting by the accounting department or the economic service of an industrial enterprise.

In calculations, it is possible to use not profit indicators as a scale, but the amount of annual salaries of current staff. Surveys conducted in a number of German companies have shown that when calculating all costs and possible negative aspects accompanying high staff turnover, the cost of replacing workers is 7-20% of the annual salary, specialists - 18-30%, replacing managers over 20%, in some cases - 100% of the annual salary. Even taking into account the approximate and not fully applicable to our conditions of these estimates, the data provided confirm the need to change the traditional approach of the enterprise to staff turnover management, to determine possible losses.

Stage 3. Identification of specific causes of staff turnover

As noted earlier, a high level of staff turnover can be caused either by the specifics of the production and economic activities of the enterprise (i.e., where the alienation of labor appears immanently in its direct form), or (in the most general case) by the imperfection of its management system.

In the first case, there is no specific (i.e. structured) problem as such, and no solutions are required.

Secondly, efforts should be made to find bottlenecks in the management system of the enterprise and its personnel.

An important aspect is related to the definition of the motivational structure of staff retirement. It is based on the real reasons that motivate an employee to make a decision to leave the company. In such circumstances, the statistics of the personnel service, at best, can only partially answer the question of why the employee quit. Thus, one reason "at one's own request" can be caused both by dissatisfaction with the level of wages and delays in payment of wages, but it is also possible for personal reasons, or perhaps by difficult and dangerous working conditions, as well as unacceptable working hours [7, p. 15].

As you know, the general scheme of human social behavior can be presented in the following form: needs interests motives actions.

In favorable social conditions, the main condition for realizing the needs and, consequently, the interests of workers is work at the enterprise. In these conditions, staff turnover does not exist as a phenomenon, since its root cause is missing. But due to different circumstances, enterprises have far from the same conditions for meeting these needs, which also creates a problem of staff turnover. On the one hand, in conditions of an increasing shortage of qualified personnel, these types of differentiation of enterprises among themselves serve as a strong enough impulse for the emergence of staff turnover. On the other hand, in the production teams of enterprises themselves, there is a differentiation according to the needs and interests of certain categories of workers (workers, with differentiation by category, engineering and technical workers, employees, apprentices, etc.).

There is a fairly close relationship and interdependence between many of these features, which leads to the identification of socio-demographic groups of workers who differ in the presence of certain needs and interests that they seek to satisfy in the process or through work at a certain workplace.

The structure of these needs is not stable. It is mobile under the influence of at least three groups of factors. Firstly, it can change under the influence of meeting vital needs; secondly, under the influence of changes in the qualitative characteristics of those who belong to this socio-demographic group, thirdly, under the influence of changes in production conditions, which give wider opportunities than before for the formation and satisfaction of new vital needs.

The first group of factors is based on the example of wages.

The second group of factors: employees belonging to different gender and age groups have different requirements for working conditions. These requirements usually differ significantly from each other and are determined by those life values and goals that are most significant for the existence of these age and gender groups. In turn, the goals and values of groups are objectively determined by the social roles inherent in their members.

Women place increased demands on working conditions (including his regime) in connection with the simultaneous performance of the functions of an employee and a mother. With the growth of education and living standards, these requirements naturally increase.

Men strive to get a profession and a job that would guarantee them the opportunity to receive not only moral, but also material satisfaction (high wages, necessary housing conditions, etc.). It is men who change places most often due to dissatisfaction with housing conditions. They have higher wage requirements than women, which leads to the fact that their level of dissatisfaction with wages is also higher. As the standard of living increases, these requirements increase.

Young people are looking for their place in life and strive to acquire a profession and a place of work that would provide either prospects for creative growth or material and moral satisfaction. In this age group, there is the highest desire to change jobs and change professions. 3-5 years after starting work, the tasks change due to the acquisition of a family. In this case, it is also necessary to take into account the availability of preschool institutions.

In adulthood, one of the main tasks is to increase wages, which is associated with an increase in expenses for younger children. In the 30-45 age group, the most common motive is dissatisfaction with the salary received.

In old age, especially in the last years before retirement, workers especially often make demands on working conditions. Many are also characterized by the desire to get a fairly high salary in order to receive a higher pension.

The level of education has a significant impact on the assessment of the production environment to the emergence of priority needs.

The qualitative structure of production teams is undergoing continuous change, firstly, under the influence of time: with increasing length of service in the production team, the average age of its members increases. Secondly, it changes as a result of the turnover of personnel, and the qualitative structures of those who left and those who arrived in the production team are not the same. The qualitative structure of recruitment and dismissal varies not only from year to year, but also throughout the year (seasonal fluctuations).

The third group of factors manifests itself especially strongly when the demand for labor significantly exceeds its supply. In the situation of excess supply over demand, which is currently observed in the context of a large-scale reform, enterprises have a reduced need to develop measures to consolidate personnel and lure them away. In all developed capitalist countries, the peak of turnover occurs during the years of the greatest business activity, when the demand for labor is greater than the supply, during periods of crisis this process drops sharply.

The determination of specific causes of staff turnover is carried out by analyzing staff turnover, which provides for the study of turnover processes from the quantitative and qualitative side, which is characterized by causes, motives and factors of turnover.

The reasons for turnover are the most common reasons for employee dismissals in this organization, which are conditionally divided into three main groups: related to family and household circumstances, dissatisfaction with workers' working and living conditions, and violations of labor discipline [8, p. 43].

The reasons for dismissal due to dissatisfaction are closely related to the factors of turnover, which are understood as the working and living conditions of employees (maintenance and organization of work, a system of material and moral incentives, organization of production and management, relationships in the team, a system of professional growth, housing, sanitary and hygienic working conditions, etc.).

The motives for dismissal are a reflection of its causes in the minds of employees, which are established during the conversation with the dismissed. The motives of turnover can be divided into several groups: professional qualifications; organization and working conditions; personal; level of satisfaction with material benefits; relationships in the team; others.

The structure of the motives of turnover can be used to judge specific social problems that arise in industrial enterprises. The structure of the motives of turnover makes it possible to rank social problems in terms of their relevance.

All of the above allows us to conclude that the definition of the motivational structure of staff retirement and the analysis of this structure allows us to make reasoned and adequate decisions in personnel management issues, which is the advantage of motivational analysis. But it also has drawbacks, the main one of which is expressed in complexity it is necessary to carry out special procedures (questionnaires, surveys of employees at the enterprise about possible subjective motives for dismissal and the degree of subjective probability of dismissal itself), i.e. the data that form the basis for building a motivational structure cannot be obtained based on the data contained in the standard "Journal of Dismissals" the usual personnel service.

As a result of the analysis of the causes of staff turnover, which can be used as a tool for making managerial decisions in the process of personnel movement at the enterprise, we propose to determine the turnover potential of hired employees. This potential quantitatively represents the probability of dismissal of a particular employee being hired, depending on the objective data that the HR department of the enterprise has about the candidate. It can be calculated based on a statistical analysis of the factors affecting staff turnover at a given enterprise and used to determine a system of measures aimed at overcoming excessive staff turnover.

Stage 4. Defining a system of measures aimed at normalizing the process of releasing labor, improving the dismissal procedure, and overcoming excessive turnover

All such events can be divided into 3 main groups:

1) technical and economic (improvement of working conditions, improvement of the system of financial incentives, organization and management of production, etc.);

2) organizational (improvement of procedures for the admission and dismissal of employees, the system of professional promotion of employees, etc.);

3) socio-psychological (improvement of leadership styles and methods, relationships in the team, the system of moral encouragement, etc.).

Enterprises can reduce the turnover rate by using the following measures:

- improvement of the organization of labor and production,

- reduction of monotonous, low-skilled labor, improvement of working conditions,

- elimination of the discrepancy between the content of work in the workplace and the qualifications of individual abilities and interests of employees,

- organization of professional staff promotion and a well-developed professional development system,

- improvement of housing and other living conditions,

- improvement of remuneration and labor incentives,

- special measures for the adaptation of young workers.

Additionally, it can be distinguished as an effective measure for the introduction of very popular principles of outplacement in the West (assistance to dismissed employees psychological, informational, and consulting). The advantage is one of the few measures that do not require significant material costs (except in cases where it may be necessary to conduct special psychological trainings with people being fired or seek help from recruitment agencies). So, a dismissed employee can be provided with a package of information, documents, and consultations. The employee may be provided with letters of recommendation; mandatory psychological counseling; training in job search methods; training in methods of working with recruitment agencies; a well-written resume; a list of recruitment agencies, etc. [9, 10 c 56].

These, at first glance, are not entirely practical measures that allow us to indirectly solve several important issues, such as:

- reduction in the number of claims from the dismissed, including lawsuits;

- reduction in the number of compensation payments to dismissed employees;

- maintaining a positive image of the company in the eyes of the employee;

- maintaining good relations with the dismissed employee (perhaps after a while you will have to contact him for some advice, especially if he is a specialist).

These measures, in our opinion, make it possible to solve or at least minimize the above tasks primarily in their psychological aspect. They actually hinder the mutual desire to "burn bridges". The employee should raise that dismissal implies termination of employment relations in a legal sense, but in no case spoiling social relations. Despite the fact that quite a lot is said about the ethics of social interactions when applying for a job (the beginning of an employment relationship) in modern practice, there is almost no mention of the ethics of separation at all. Perhaps this is due to the fact that, as if a priori, it is believed that if an employee works well, then both sides are satisfied, and in principle he should not want to quit. Nevertheless, this statement actually has a very high degree of idealization, since a job change can be dictated by a whole range of professional, social, life, etc. circumstances and is not always motivated by dissatisfaction with the current employer. From a practical point of view, it is obvious that otherwise staff turnover would be a minor problem at all. The above measures make it clear to the employee that his work and contribution to the development of the company has been appreciated, and therefore, the person, in turn, understands that the completed stage of the professional path has meaningfulness, integrity and social significance in simple terms, part of his life was not lived in vain.

In an open information space, when feedback from anyone about anything and about anyone is commonplace, a company cannot be satisfied with a situation in which employees leave "holding a grudge", especially if the turnover in it is at a high level (and it is likely to be at a high level under such conditions). It is quite difficult to recruit competent specialists focused on mutual development and long-term cooperation with a large number of negative reviews, this reduces the quality of potentially attracted personnel and, accordingly, causes turnover. In fact, there is a vicious circle when one follows from the other. These measures will allow, taking into account the arguments given, if not to break it down, then at least minimize the indicated contradictions.

Stage 5. Determination of the effect of the implementation of the developed measures, improvement of the dismissal procedure, overcoming excessive turnover

When developing a program to eliminate excessive turnover, it is also necessary to conduct a comparative analysis of the costs of carrying out these activities and losses due to excessive turnover. In this case, the company's management should do the same as with the investment planning of any innovative project if the cost of solving the problem exceeds the economic effect of reducing turnover, it is possible to search for other, more "cheap" options for improving work with personnel.

Initially, according to the management accounting data at enterprises, the total losses from staff turnover are calculated. An approximate calculation can be carried out using the above-mentioned empirical loss factor of 20% of the salary of the dismissed. So, if the turnover ratio at the enterprises we studied averaged 13.1% over 15 years, then the loss from turnover is approximately 2.62% of the annual salary fund. Bringing, as a result of the implementation of the proposed methodology, a significant reduction in the level of turnover to its natural rate (3-5%) will save about 2% of the annual wage fund.

Discussion of the research results

Projecting the research results presented in the paper onto the general managerial and publication background of recent years suggests that the proposed algorithm for managing staff turnover contains elements of novelty for the following reasons.

In modern publications, the problem of staff turnover is mainly presented either from a generalized and staged position, or it is considered in the focus of a certain aspect (economic, industrial, managerial, social, psychological, etc.) with the justification of appropriate work in this direction. Consideration of the holistic algorithm contains signs of a cyclical approach, which allows us to talk about the analysis of the life of an enterprise at some economically significant period.

Thus, we believe that the local increase in scientific knowledge in this work is primarily methodological in nature and is due to the complex nature of considering staff turnover as a managerial phenomenon from its social nature to specific proposals justifying their economic benefits.

Conclusion and conclusions of the study

The substantial analysis carried out in the article allows us to come to the following conclusions.

1) Staff turnover as an organizational phenomenon has a complex nature, combining causality of both a purely economic and managerial, social and psychological nature. This is how we can talk about its methodological status as a humanitarian phenomenon that goes beyond the spectrum of economic methodology research.

2) In modern research at the level of journal articles, staff turnover as an object of research is considered as a rule through the prism of its separate aspect, while there is a gap in its comprehensive research at the level of theoretical analysis and synthesis of specific economically sound recommendations.

3) An effective algorithm for managing staff turnover in an industrial enterprise should be divided into five interrelated stages. These stages include determining the level of staff turnover; determining the level of economic losses caused by staff turnover; determining the specific causes of staff turnover: determining a system of measures aimed at normalizing the process of releasing labor, improving the dismissal procedure, overcoming excessive turnover; determining the effect of implementing the developed measures, improving the dismissal procedure, overcoming excessive turnover.

4) This algorithmization, combined with a comparative analysis of the costs of carrying out these activities and losses due to excessive turnover, allows you to bring the turnover rate to its natural rate (3-5%), which will save about 2% of the annual wage fund. The theoretically justified algorithm in combination with the presented calculation methodology determines the local scientific and methodological novelty of the presented article.

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17. Sadeghi, A., & Alavi, A. (2023). The Relationship between Organizational Happiness and Job Motivation with Turnover Intention of Health Centers Staff. Journal of Social Behavior and Community Health, 1, 6-17.

First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the study. The study, based on the name, is devoted to the development of an algorithm for managing staff turnover in industrial enterprises. The content of the article corresponds to the stated topic. The research methodology is based on the analysis and synthesis of data, the use of deduction. It is valuable that the author uses graphic objects to demonstrate the results of the study. At the same time, attention is drawn to the lack of use of numerical data, which significantly reduces the impression of familiarization with the text of the reviewed article. When finalizing the article, it is recommended to fix this problem. This will significantly increase the justification of the relevance of the research, the reasonableness of the author's judgments, as well as the significance of the results obtained. The relevance of the study of issues related to the algorithm of personnel turnover management of industrial enterprises is beyond doubt, because it meets both the interests of an individual organization and public legal entities, including in the context of achieving the national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030. Scientific novelty is present in the material submitted for review if Figures 1 and 2 are copyrighted, but this fact is not obvious from the text of the article: there is no indication of the author of these graphic objects. Also, as elements of scientific novelty, the stages of activity of the relevant personnel turnover management services at an industrial enterprise can be considered, including indicators for assessing losses from staff turnover. It would be interesting to show how they differ from those already given in existing scientific publications. Style, structure, content. The style of presentation is scientific, but it should be noted that the word "possible" is not acceptable for a scientific text. The structure of the article is not clearly structured by the author, but, in general, the material is presented logically. At the same time, it should be noted that certain elements adopted for scientific articles are missing: for example, "Research methodology", "Discussion of research results", "Further directions of research". Familiarization with the content allows us to conclude that there are interesting author's results and judgments, but the weak level of their justification draws attention to itself. For example, Figures 1 and 2 show models of profit dependence on staff turnover. It is also necessary to draw the author's attention to the justification of the author's judgments. For example, the author argues that "measures can indirectly solve several important issues": how do the proposed measures affect the solution of these tasks? The author is recommended to graphically show and, if possible, show a numerical justification. It would also be interesting to take into account the demographic factor in the practical recommendations. Bibliography. The bibliographic list consists of 10 sources, which cannot be considered a sufficient study of the existing scientific contribution to the solution of the issues raised, especially considering that most of the publications relate to the period not older than 2019. The author is recommended, firstly, to study foreign scientific publications on the management of staff turnover in industrial enterprises, and, secondly, to supplement them with domestic scientific works published in 2022-2023. Appeal to opponents. Despite the generated list of references, no scientific discussion was found in the text of the reviewed article. It would be interesting to indicate the increase in scientific knowledge in comparison with the already accumulated scientific base on personnel turnover management in industrial enterprises. This will have a positive impact on the formation of scientific novelty. Conclusions, the interest of the readership. Taking into account all the above, we conclude that the article is devoted to topical problems, the solution of which is of practical interest to a large number of potential stakeholders: financial analysts, sociologists, psychologists, experts, officials of state authorities of the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The reviewed article is devoted to the study of issues related to staff turnover and the development of algorithms for managing this process. The research methodology is based on a combination of methods of theoretical analysis and practical empirical research, determined by the meaningful properties of the phenomena considered in the work, provides for the use of the method of abstraction, synthesis, deduction and analysis, and is based on a generalization of previously published works on the studied problem. The authors attribute the relevance of the work to the fact that the algorithm for managing staff turnover and its methods in a market economy have specific features compared to previous business conditions, noting that in recent years it has not been uncommon for employees to leave for other organizations in whole groups or teams, while some departments or entire industries were practically paralyzed. When presenting the formulations of scientific novelty, the authors note that the local increase in scientific knowledge in this work is primarily methodological in nature and is due to the complex nature of considering staff turnover as a managerial phenomenon from its social nature to specific proposals justifying their economic benefits. Structurally, the following sections are highlighted in the article: Introduction (problem statement), Research methodology, Main part, Discussion of research results, Conclusion and conclusions of the study, Bibliography. The authors distinguish three levels of staff turnover: firstly, natural - at the level of 3-6% of the number of staff, secondly, equilibrium corresponding to the balance between profit losses and the cost of combating turnover, thirdly, increased, causing unacceptable economic losses. The text of the article is illustrated with two figures: "Profit dependence on staff turnover", "Minimizing profit losses due to the fight against turnover". Noting that in the algorithm of personnel turnover management at industrial enterprises, the establishment of patterns of the staff turnover process and the dependence of its intensity on the socio-demographic characteristics of employees acts as the basis for personnel movement management, the authors believe that knowledge of these patterns allows us to predict the number of dismissals and find ways to mitigate the negative impact of these factors. The staff turnover management algorithm is presented in the form of five stages: determining the level of staff turnover; calculating economic losses caused by turnover; identifying specific causes of staff turnover; developing a system of measures aimed at overcoming excessive turnover; determining the effect of the implementation of developed measures to overcome excessive turnover. To assess the amount of losses at the second stage, it is proposed to use the following indicators: Loss of working time; losses caused by the dismissal procedure; losses caused by court costs in connection with illegal dismissal, subsequent restoration and payment of time for forced absenteeism; losses caused by the procedure for hiring employees to a vacant workplace; training costs of the employed employee; decrease in labor productivity of employees who decided to quit; the cost of forming stable labor collectives with a normal socio-psychological climate. According to the results of the study, conclusions are formulated, concisely reflected in three points. The bibliographic list includes 17 sources modern publications of domestic and foreign scientists on the topic considered in the article. The text contains targeted references to the description of each source, which confirms the existence of an appeal to opponents. Among the reserves for improving the presented materials, it can be noted the need to design a formula for calculating the level of employee satisfaction with the organization in accordance with the accepted rules and GOST, as well as the elimination of inconsistent phrases in the text, for example, in the final sentence of the section "Discussion of research results". The reviewed material corresponds to the direction of the journal "Politics and Society", may arouse the interest of readers, and is recommended for publication taking into account the comments made.