Transformation of the theater: ancient and New European theater, director's theater of the XX century, theater of "social changes"
// Culture and Art. – 2022. – № 7.
– P. 96-114.
Read the article
Abstract: The author connects the analysis of the formation of the ancient theater with the formation of art in ancient Greece, theatrical communication (including the positions of the author, artist and viewer), theater as a special space, awareness of the art and nature of ancient Greek drama in the "Poetics" of Aristotle. In the culture of modern times, the ancient canon of the theater is being established anew, since ancient Greek works are being reinterpreted from the point of view of the relationship to the medieval heritage and the social reality of the emerging new time. The new socio-cultural situation has predetermined three important consequences for the theater: firstly, the content of the stories written by playwrights is radically changing, secondly, the audience is changing, and thirdly, the rapid growth of theaters in emerging national states begins. These innovations are illustrated by the example of the French theater of the times of Louis XIV and Racine. In the second half of the XIX, the beginning of the XX century, the director's theater was formed. The director considers the artist as one of the "expressive means" along with others (music, scenery, theatrical clothing, symbols, etc.). The author suggests that the director's theater was influenced by the reflection of music. In the director's theater, the artist does not disappear, as Kugel claims, but on the contrary, he creates a tense field of meanings, communication and actions; while the artist on stage retains the original, coming from archaic times and religion, communication between the audience and the creators of works of art. The problems that arise in the director's theater are discussed on the example of the theatrical production "Eugene Onegin", which was carried out by Rimas Tuminas. In conclusion, the documentary theater and the theater of complicity are discussed. In both cases, the theater remains a theater: the performance is maintained by the actors' play, a second, full-fledged world of artistic reality is created, although the audience takes part in the constitution of what is happening, they, nevertheless, remain spectators at the same time, observing and experiencing events arising with their participation.
Keywords: text, understanding, artistic reality, art, performance, director, author, viewer, theatre, interpretation
Ailamazyan, A.M. (2018). Cultural and historical aspects of psychopractice // Questions of Psychology. N 5.
Aristotle. (1983). Poetics // Aristotle. Op. in 4 volumes. T. 4. Moscow: Thought
Akhutin, A. V. (1990). Opening of consciousness // Man and culture. Moscow: Science.
Berman, V.L. (2009). Theatrical reality and its transformation in the postmodern era: on puppet theater material. Cand. diss.
Brusnikina, M. (2022). “The most important thing is to change the idea of what theater is” https://www.culture.ru/materials/256109/marina-brusnikina-samoe-vazhnoe-pomenyat-predstavleniya-o-tom-chto-takoe theater
Vygotsky, L.S. (1986). Psychology of art. 3rd ed. ‒ Moscow: Art.
Gordienko, E.I. (2018). On the performativity of contemporary (post)documentary theater // Practices and Interpretations. T. (1) 3.
The history of the Western European theater from its inception to 1789. Moscow: Art. “University Minds. (1956) http://svr-lit.ru/svr-lit/istoriya-zapadnoevropejskogo-teatra/universi